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. XL JAN. 10, wre.

granted by the king to Sir Robert Frauncey (Genealogist N.S., vol. xv. p. 28). Sir Rober Fraunceys bore Argent, a chevron between three eagles displayed gules (Willemenf Roll, temp. Richard II.); and according t( Harl. 1396 this coat was originally quartere by the Charletons of Apley Castle, but was afterwards cancelled ('Visitation of Shrop shire,' Harl. Soc., pp. 107, 109). It is possible therefore, that the wife of Thomas Knightley alias Charleton, was related to Sir Robert, anc not Sir Adam Fraunceys. Perhaps some o your readers may be able to throw further light thereon. ALFRED T. EVERITT.

High Street, Portsmouth.

BLACK FAST (9 th S. x. 248, 352, 455). If DOM HUNTER-BLAIR is against me, I am probably wrong. It is ill contending with a Benedictine on a question of ecclesiology. and especially with your learned corre- spondent. I therefore submit with a good grace to his correction, only adding that what knowledge I possess of Catholic usages is partially derived from a foreign country Malta, to wit where I lived for many years. I think I am safe in affirming that there, at least, the fast of Christmas Eve is of greater strictness than, say, that of the eve of the Ascension. Of recent years epis- copal relaxations of fasts in England have been so usual that the question has become a little complicated.


The only black fast known to history and chronology is the Jewish Yom Kippur, or Day of Atonement. It falls on 10 Tishri, just after their civil new year's day, corresponding with our September or October. See Leviticus xxiii. 27, where Tishri is called the seventh month of their ecclesiastical year. The primary root of Kippur is to cover or wipe away, and the ceremonial rite involves mutual forgiveness of all offences. LYSART.

PIN PICTURES (9 th S. x. 308, 375, 493). The quotations which have been given by MR. FORD and MR. PICKFORD do not quite meet my inquiry how these pictures were made. My pictures, if pricked with pins, would have a " burr " on the under side. The under side is quite smooth, and the holes flush with the rest of the sheet. Some of the perfora- tions are diamond and other shapes, the holes appearing to have been clean cut with some very sharp tool. The "patterns" are so unequal that a machine could not have been used for making the perforations.




The New Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica,. Vol. VII., being Vol. XXXI. of the Complete Work. (A. & C. Black and the Times.} VOL. xxxi. of the new edition of 'The Encyclo- paedia Britannica' prolongs the space of the alpha- bet covered by the work from Mos to Pre, and shows that two-thirds of the task are practically accomplished. In this volume the prefatory essay, which is by Mr. Frederick Greenwood, deals with ' The Influence of Commerce on International De- velopment. 5 This opens very happily with a discus- sion of the feelings that might have animated a great intellect on the first substitution of barter tor acquisition by violence and robbery. To such it must have seemed to herald the approach of a millennium. In the middle of the last century the faith in the peaceful influence of commerce received a great shock. Among the evils attending com- merce are mentioned the education of barbarians in war and the supply to them of weapons. Far from sanguine are the conclusions Mr. Greenwood draws as to the results of international development. "The good genii of the nineteenth century have done great things for the material welfare of man- iind; but what," he asks, "have they done for peaceĀ ? " ' Mosquitoes ' is one of the opening articles,

he interest in which is to some extent discounted
>y what has previously been written on malaria.

The often-made assertion is repeated that in Eng- and these pests are called gnats. No doubt gnats and mosquitoes belong to the same order, but there is a great deal of difference between the two, as we can testify. ' Motor Vehicles' is one of the articles most up to date. These carriages are divided under the heads ' Light ' and ' Heavy,' and are treated respectively by the Hon. C. S. Rolls and Prof. Hele- Shaw, F.R.S. * Under the former head the writer gives some much-needed counsel as to the right of a pedestrian or a horseman to the high road. A great uture is declared to be before the motorist, and it is said that a single ride in a good vehicle usually converts the most prejudiced opponent. Numerous llustrations are afforded. * Mountaineering ' is by Sir Martin W. Conway, president of the Alpine Jlub. It is lucidly written, and establishes the manner in which the eight chief difficulties that ront the Alpine climber are to be faced. The bio- raphy of Michael von Munkacsy is accompanied >y a reproduction of his ' Last Day of a Condemned ^risoner.' A short account of ' Mural Decoration ' s from the competent pen of Mr. Walter Crane, jord Balcarres on ' Museums,' Mr. John Hollings- iead on ' Music-Halls,' and Mr. Fuller Maitland on Music' deserve attention. ' Mycenean Civiliza- ion,' by Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Director of the Cretan Exploration Fund, is one of the most scholarly rticles in the work. It is enriched with a plan of he citadel of Mycenae. For the remains of pottery chliemann's works are the principal authority, lacial questions are naturally raised, though no ery definite conclusions as to Pelasgic and other nfluences are reached. A stirring history of Natal is ollowed by an all-important account of 'Navies' y Lord Brassey and Lieut. Bellairs, R.N., and nother on ' Navigation.' Two striking illustra- lons of scenes of combat are given with the bio- raphy of Alphonse Marie de Neuville. Under New Guinea,' the largest island in the world,