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9 th S. XL JUNE 20, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


493



a similar kind, to consult Mr. Murray's 'Byron's Works' ('Letters and Journals'), a most accurate and exhaustive authority on Byron, which has been so ably edited by Mr. Kowland Prothero. RICHARD EDGCUMBE. Edgbarrow, Crowthorne, Berks.

SHAKESPEARE'S SEVENTY-SIXTH SONNET (9 l1 S. x. 125, 274, 412, 495, 517 ; xi. 96, 249). MR- STRONACH will have to explain much more than he has hitherto attempted, if he is to succeed in making many converts to his theory of the authorship of Shakespeare's plays and poems. Apart from the considera- tion of the fact that the author of the ' Novum Organum ' did not possess in a sufficient degree that highly imaginative and poetical faculty which would enable him to write the plays and poems in question, we have many things to face which, I venture to say, dissipate the whole theory of their Baconian authorship. There is such ample evidence in contemporary writings to prove the claim of William Shakespeare, " the man of Stratford," that we are not warranted in forming any other conclusion than that he was the veritable author of the works pub- lished in his name. The statements of con- temporaries are absolute matters of fact, whereas everything adduced to prove that Francis Bacon was the author is pure assump- tion. For fear of taking up too much space, I will merely cite the testimony of one writer only, out of many to whom reference might be made.

Thomas Heywood, who has been described by Charles Lamb as "a prose Shakespeare," was actor, poet, dramatist, and miscellaneous writer of the period, and, moreover, it can be shown, was personally acquainted with Shakespeare. In his 'Hierarchic of the Blessed Angells' he refers to our great dra- matic poet in the following terms :

Mellifluous Shakespeare, whose inchanting Quill

Commanded Mirth or Passion, was but Will.

Surely this is evidence sufficient, not only of his knowledge of Shakespeare the man, but also the author.

in addition to this, however, he further proves his personal acquaintance with Shake speare and his high appreciation of his genius. In 1612 appeared his 'Apology for Actors,' to which was prefixed a dedicatory letter to Nicholas Okes, printer and publisher. This letter has reference to the publication by W. Jaggard, a rival publisher, of the selection of poems entitled '"The Passionate Pilgrim,' by W. Shakespeare," into which two poems of Heywood had been introduced by Jaggard without authority, as though they had been


the work of the greater poet. In his letter to Okes Heywood expressly says :

" Here likewise, I must necessarily insert a mani- fest injury done me in that worke, by taking the two epistles of Paris to Helen, and Helen to Paris, and printing them in a lesse volume under the name of another, which may put the world in opinion I might steale them from him, and hee, to doe him- self right, hath since published them in his owne name : but, as I must acknowledge my lines not worthy his patronage under whom he hath published them, so the author, I know, much offended with M. Jaggard (that altogether unknowne to him), presumed to make so bold with his name. These and the like dishonesties I knowe you to bee cleere of ; and I could wish but to bee the happy author of so worthy a worke as I could willingly commit to your care and workmanship."

It would seem that further comment is need- less ; but the Baconians have such an ingenious way of interpreting evidence to meet their views, that it would be both curious and interesting to know how they would deal with the two cases I have here quoted.

E. F. BATES.

" TONGUE-TWISTERS " (9 th S. xi. 269, 455). PROF. STRONG is mistaken in putting under this heading a pleasantry of another kind traditional among French children. The sentence, which he quotes incompletely, affords a puzzle akin to the classic jingle which perhaps lingers still amongst English boys in the earlier stages of Latin, "In-mud- eel-is, in-clay-none-is," &c. The French puzzle-sentence is spoken in four words, each with a stress such as is used in more Southern tongues, " Lerienta - tentalera, leratente - tatalerienta " ; and the interpretation there- of is " Le riz en tas tenta le rat ; le rat tente tata le riz en tas." This sentence offers no difficulty to the tongue.

EDWARD NICHOLSON.

I send the following : " The sun shines on the shop signs" (to be repeated quickly several times) ; " She says she shall sew a sheet." DONALD FERGUSON.

CRAWFORD (9 th S. xi. 328, 417). MR. COLE- MAN, to whom I am obliged for the informa- tion, has kindly pointed out previous references to William, eldest son of the Andrew Crawford mentioned in my query. The said references, however, throw no light on the traditional connexion of my family with Ayrshire, respecting which I much desire to be informed.

Perhaps the following additional particu- lars, which have since come to hand, and which are more correct than those which previously appeared, may enable your readers to assist me further.

John (?) Crawford, grandfather of Andrew