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64


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. XL JAN. 24, 1903.


books first appeared. His son, Mr. R. B. Marston, is both proprietor and editor. To this paper we owe the Izaak Walton memorial in Winchester Cathedral, as well as that in St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, this being a stained-glass window. There is also a marble slab in the porch. JOHN C. FRANCIS.

(To be continued.)


SHAKESPEARE'S BOOKS. (Continued from 9 th S. viii. 321.)

Hoi. He is too picked, top spruce, too affected, too odd, as it were, too peregrinate, as I may call it.

Nath. A most singular and choice epithet.

[Takes out his table-book.

Hoi. He draweth out the thread of his verbosity finer than the staple of his argument. I abhor such fanatical phantasms, such insociable and point-devise companions ; such rackers of ortho- graphy, as to speak dout, fine, when he should say, doubt ; det, when he should pronounce, debt, d, e, b, t, not d, e, t : he clepeth a calf, cauf ; half, hauf ; neighbour vocatur nebour ; neigh abbreviated ne. This is abhominable, (which he would call abominable:) it insinuateth me of insanie; ne in- telligis, domine ? to make frantic, lunatic.

Nath. Laus Deo, bone intelligo.

Hoi. Bone ?bone, for bene : Priscian a little scratched ; 'twill serve.

' Love's Labour's Lost,' V. i.

In this passage Shakespeare certainly refers to two " vices in speaches and writing " de- scribed by Puttenham : " Barbarismus or Forrein Speech " and " Solecismus or Incon- gruitie."

" The foulest vice in language is to speake bar- barously : this terme grew by the great pride of the Greekes and Latines, when they were dominatours of the world, reckoning no language so sweete and civill as their owne and that all nations beside them selves were rude and uncivill, which they called barbarous : So as when any straunge word not of the natural Greeke or Latin was spoken in the old time they called it barbarisme, or when any of their owne naturall wordes were sounded and pronounced with straunge and ill shapen accents, or written by wrong orthographic as he that would say with us in England, a dousand for a thousand, isterday for yesterday, as commonly the Dutch and French people do, they said it was barbarously spoken. The Italian at this day by like arrogance calleth the Frenchman, Spaniard, Dutch, English, and all other breed behither their mountaines Appennines, Tra- montani, as who would say Barbarous."

" Your next intolerable vice is solecismus or in- congruitie, as when we speak false English, that is misusing the grammaticall rules to be observed in cases, genders, tenses and such like, every poore scholler knowes the fault and cals it the breaking of Priscians head, for he was among the Latines a principall Grammarian.' 3

Holofernes gives examples of the bad spelling of "rackers of orthography," and Puttenham gives examples of words pro- nounced with strange, ill-shapen accent, or


written by " wrong orthography," and Shake- speare, in referring to these " vices in speaches and writing," observes the order in which Puttenham describes them, that is, barbaris- mus comes first and solecismus follows im- mediately after.

Costard. Go to ; thou hast it ad dunghill, at the fingers' ends, as they say.

Hoi. O, I smell false Latin ; dunghill for unguem.

Arm. Arts-man, prceambula ; we will be singled from the barbarous. Do you not educate youth at the charge-house on the top of the mountain ?

Hoi. Or mons, the hill.

Arm. At your sweet pleasure, for the mountain. 'Love's Labour's Lost,' V. i.

Costard speaks barbarously, for he uses dunghill, a " word not of the natural Latin," for unguem^ and Armado says " we will be singled from the barbarous " ; moreover, Puttenham in describing, and Shakespeare in referring in this passage to, barbarismus both mention the mountain.

King. Well, sit you out : go home, Biron : adieu ! Biron. No, my good lord, I have sworn to stay with you :

And though I have for barbarism spoke more Than for that angel knowledge you can say, Yet confident I '11 keep to what I swore, And bide the penance of each three years' day. ' Love's Labour's Lost,' I. i.

It seems evident that Biron does not refer to this vice, because, although he says, "I have for barbarism spoke" he had not "sounded and pronounced natural words with strange and ill-shapen accents or written them by wrong orthography," in the manner Armado was wont to do, according to the description Holofernes gives of his barbarism. W. L. RUSHTON.

(To be continued.)


THE GERMAN REPRINT OF LEISARRAGA'S BOOKS. In an essay published by the Philological Society of London in 1901 I wrote that the reprint of the Baskish New Testament of 1571 published at Strassburg in Elsass in 1900 "reproduces all the misprints of the original and adds a few others" ; and I quoted a few places where the first part of my accusation is capable of " eyely and euident demonstration," to use a phrase of Lei9arraga's time. The editors avow that they meant to give us a quite unconnected reproduction (not in facsimile, unfortunately) of the original, so that they are in no way to blame for the misprints of Hautin, the imprimagale of La Rochelle in 1571. I have had hitherto no opportunity of showing that the Strassburg edition contains some mis- prints of which the original is innocent, and that in some places it varies from that by