NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. v. APRIL 7, 1900.
more than merely to give it wind. It surely implies that the bugler holds sway over the instrument and turns it to his purpose. Any ordinary man may blow into a bugle, but it is only an expert that can wind it. I have myself tried the winding on occasion, with very indifferent success. I believe therefore that to wind a horn indicates art as well as physical power, and that it is only your Childe Roland that can compass a final and perfect blast. The etymologists, unfortu- nately, appear to scout this view, although one authority discussing " wind," to turn gives as a special or an exceptional definition, " to bend, or turn, to ones pleasure; hence, to exercise complete control over," and quotes an illustration from ArJdison. This would suit perfectly the performance on the bugle. Again, the fact that we wind, not wind a horn as we do a hare, or a horse, or a ship has undoubtedly a significance of its own. Why should an exhausted runner be winded, and a useful bugle winded ? There is pro- bably more in this distinction than the mere caprice of custom. In any case, no one will surely credit Sir Walter Scott, or Tennyson or, for that matter, their humble disciple holding this brief with deliberately assuming or asserting that "wound" is the regular past tense of "wind," to blow, or apply wind to an instrument. That would be a very appalling assumption. It may just be added, in con- clusion, that Scott, with characteristic ease and freedom of method, uses "winded" in reference to a bugle when he needs two syllables for his immediate purpose.
That blast was winded by the King ! is a line in * The Lord of the Isles,' iv. 18.
EMMAS (9 th S. iv. 381). We are suffering in the village in which I reside from an incur- sion of showmen, holding what they term i "spring fair" (a sort of pleasure fair). ] ventured to ask one of the attendants what an " Emma " was. He replied by showing m a board, about 18 in. high by 14 in. wide, upoi which is painted a man's face, but with a huge mouth, teeth being represented b; short tobacco-pipes stuck on wires. Fou wooden balls, aoout the size of oranges are supplied for the sum of a penny to th< aspirant who desires to knock Kruger's (fo that is the prevailing " face " at the fair) teeth out. If successful the reward is a packet o cheap cigarettes. "O tempora ! O mores ! "
GARWAY FAMILY (9 th S. v. 169). Thi name occurs in the pedigree of Fynmores "o the Royal Marines," see p. 22 in * Memorial
f the Family of Fynmore,' by Mr. W. P. W. 'hillimore, 1886. William Fynmore married, 821, Mary, dau. of John Brad by, of Hamble, lants ; she died 1841, and had issue, with thers, Frances Garway and Sarah Garway, oth married. Perhaps the name Garway ould be traced through the Brad by family. R. J. FYNMORE. Sandgate, Kent.
NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
Modern Italy, 1746-1898. By Pietro Orsi. (Fisher
THE latest addition to "The Story of the Nations" eries consists of the story of modern Italy told by Signer Pietro Orsi, Professor of History in the Liceo ~?oscarini, Venice. That the history of the building f modern Italy is as splendid and picturesque as that f the great Italian republics, out of the ruins of which it is constituted, none will say. It is, how- ever, almost as diversified, and in almost every respect more satisfactory. In place of the fierce ivalries, the ever-changing combinations, and the remorseless feuds, we have now the strenuous and persistent efforts of a great people to win its en- ranchisement and achieve its unity. Seldom was i triumph so full obtained under circumstances more difficult. Of the great powers by which Italy s surrounded all had been at times her masters and oppressors, and all cast greedy eyes upon her terri-
- ory. The one power that half-heartedly aided her
n the task of winning her freedom exacted from ler a price that robbed the action of all grace, and watched grudgingly her limits extend from those of a union of border states from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic, as was at first con- templated, to the entire peninsula. In addition to the other passions and covetousnesses that were inspired, there was the question of the temporal possessions of the Church, in itself calculated to breed undying hostilities. The triumph over these difficulties Prof. Orsi describes eloquently and well. It is needless to say that he is an ardent patriot, and justifies the various steps by which a united Italy was obtained. No inconsiderable proportion of educated Englishmen regarded the progress of the events he depicts. We have ourselves watched the sullen hostility of the Venetian and the fierce menace of the Milanese against the Tedewhi, If England alone among the great European powers contemplated with satisfaction the establishment of the Italian kingdom, it niust be remembered that she alone had no territorial designs upon her, and nothing, practically, to fear from her hostility. Prof. Orsi deals competently with his subject, and supplies a work that may be read with pleasure and studied with advantage. The illustrations consist of portraits of eminent monarchs, states- men, and warriors, and pictures of palaces.
The Religion of Babylonia, and Assyria. By Morris Jastrow, Jun., Ph.D. (Boston, U.S., Ginn & Co. ; London, Arnold.)
THAT the remains of the oldest civilization known should exercise a fascinating influence on the alert intellects of the New World is no more than we