NOTES AND QUERIES. 19* s. v. JAN. 20, 1000.
CARDINAL YORK (9 fch S. iv. 289). The state- ment is not incredible, seeing that Henry was twenty-three years of age before he became cardinal. He was, too, distinguished for much spirit in these early years. But the thing is very improbable. So much has been raked up about the later Stuarts that this would assuredly not be overlooked by people who have accepted the statements of the Countess Albany. There was much mystery about Henry's will, but it resulted in nothing that would suggest the birth of this son. The tale of the Sobieski Stuarts is even worse. Surely the legend of the Aliens is not going to appear again, with Henry Benedict for Charles Edward. Whether they were impostors or not, the Sobieski Stuarts made a romantic story without any great reference to Cardinal York. In connexion with the life in Rome, I venture to mention an article in the July Quarterly on * Montes- quieu in Italy.' From it can be gathered the ease with which endless and boundless scandals of this kind could be put abroad. Cardinal Ottoboni, for instance, was the reputed father of about seventy children. GEORGE MARSHALL.
Sefton Park, Liverpool.
THE VOWEL COMBINATION EO (9 th S. i. 305). This may well puzzle a foreigner, e. g., in trying to say, " The yeoman saved his people from the leopard." George Sandys, in his version of the '^Eneid,' bk. i., speaks of "^Eneas feoble knees." See p. 535 of the Ovid volume, 1632. RICHARD H. THORNTON.
THE ORIGIN OF " TIPS " (9 th S. iv. 308, 352, 461, 488). The verb will be found in Richard Head's ' Canting Academy ; or, the Devil's Cabinet Opened ' (London, 1673), at p. 37 :
" Earnest, A part or share, As for example, Tip me my Earnest, Give me my Share or Divident."
JAMES DOUGLAS STODDART DOUGLAS (9 th S. iv. 539). The question as to whether a particular individual is entitled to armorial bearings can only be satisfactorily answered by the College of Arms. If the above-men- tioned Douglas registered his descent from a Douglas to whom armorial bearings had been gran ted or allowed, he would be en titled to bear the arms and crest with due difference. If he could not prove his descent from an armiger, it would be open to him to become a grantee himself by petitioning the Earl Marshal and paying the fees. In Scotland, even if he proved descent, he would have to have the arms matriculated. CHEVRON.
IRON PAVEMENT (9 th S. iv. 514). This ex- periment seems to have been tried in more
- han one part of London. In the European
Magazine for July, 1817, p. 30, there are some 'Reflections on Modern Improvements in Science,' in the course of which the writer remarks :
" It seems, however, with all our wisdom, we are
- ast reverting to the Iron Age Our parochial
imits are defined by iron. On iron streets we may roam by day, while on iron [bedjsteads we may, if we choose, repose by night. I was naturally led into these reflections, on observing the experiment now making respecting iron pavement in the vicinity of Leicester Square."
He then proceeds to discuss the question of iron versus granite. G. L. APPERSON.
With reference to MR. R. WELFORD'S query about ' Iron Pavement,' tessellated pavement was, to the best of my belief, laid down in Leadenhall Street in the early sixties to remedy the slipperiness of the wooden pave- ment. I believe it was not a success.
FLAXMAN'S WIFE (9 th S. iv. 399, 502). On 3 April, 1815, twenty persons formed a society, and taking a large upper room near the Obelisk in St. George's Fields, Southwark, there commenced worship according to the doctrines promulgated by Emanuel Sweden- borg. Three years later, success having attended its efforts, the little band took a lease of a piece of land in Waterloo Road and built thereon a chapel, which was opened on 30 May, 1819. The lease was granted to three of the members, whereof one is described as "Jervoise Bugby, Bedford Street, Strand, London, Gentleman." His wife was I have it on the authority of an octogenarian lady to whom the fact was familiar in her child hood a niece of Anne Denman, who married John Flaxman. His complete acceptance of Swedenborg's teaching is a matter of common knowledge. In 1820 the society determined to open a free school, and erected for the purpose a building at the back of the chapel, wherein the school was started in 1821, and continued for upwards of a quarter of a century. Jervoise Bugby, aforesaid, was treasurer of the school for the years 1822-3 and 1823-4, and I have temporarily in my possession the original account - book in which his figures appear in the very finest clerkly fashion of the period. Among the subscribers' names are those of "Mr. E. 1 )rmnan " and " Mr. W. Denman."
Can any reader of *N. & Q.' give me in- formation concerning the "celebrated John Church, well known in London by the name of the 'Obelisk Preacher,'" who preceded this