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NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. s, 1902.

Cathedral a large blotch of dampness or some minute fungus, forming a lifelike outline of the dean's head and face. It was photo- graphically reproduced in one or both of the Cardiff daily papers at the time.


MAJOLICAN BACINI ON OLD CHURCHES AT PISA AND ELSEWHERE (9 th S. viii. 503). See an article by Mr. C. D. Fortnum in Archcso- logia, vol. xlii. (1869), at pp. 379-86. The bacini at S. Pietro in Grado, S. Andrea, S. Sisto, and S. Francesco, at Pisa, seem to be considered by Fortnum to be in general Italian. At S. Cecilia, among many Italian bacini, he found one which he describes as ancient Persian or Damascus faience. After describing the bacini in churches at Rome and elsewhere, he sums up thus :

"From the foregoing facts it may be inferred that very few of the bacini now found in the churches of Italy are other than of Italian manu- facture. The adoption of such a method of decora- tion may or may not have had its origin at Pisa, and was manifestly in great favour there ; but I am inclined to think that the story of the Majorcan dishes, captured and built in as trophies in the church walls, is apocryphal."


" MACHINE " = PUBLIC COACH (9 th S. viii. 462 ; ix. 37). The " machine" was known in Bristol in 1754, two years earlier than the date quoted by MR. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL at the last reference. In an advertisement in Felix Farley's Journal, issued at Bristol, the " Bristol Flying Machine " was announc to start for London on 24 February, 1754, at 2 A.M. The journey was performed in two days. My collection of broadsheets, news- paper cuttings, &c., relating to Bristol con- tains woodcuts of two of the " machines '" that went from Bristol to London in 1756, viz., " The Bristol Machine," which startec from the " White Lion," Broad Street, Bristol, and arrived at the " Saracen's Head," Friday Street, London ; and " The Old London Machine," which started from the "White Hart," Broad Street, Bristol, and on the return journey took up passengers at the " One Bell," in the Strand, the " Bell Savage,' on Ludgate Hill, and the "Three Cups," in Bread Street. These two machines were buil on steel springs : one has the appearance o a miniature state carriage, the other looking unmistakably like a sedan chair on a large scale elevated on a frame. They were drawr by six horses, a man riding on one o. the leaders, the coachman or "whip" being seated on the front of the machine, on a platform detached from the body or coach

In the year 1763 and probably before the ourney was performed in one day by the nachines which started from the " Rummer Tavern," High Street, Bristol, and arrived at the "Three Cups," Bread Street, London, incidentally, I may mention that an original 3oard, with particulars of the fares of the caches to London, is still preserved at the

Rummer Hotel." It is somewhat curious

that some of my newspaper cuttings relating to the light post coaches and machines which Derformed the journey from Bristol to London, via Bath, in the year 1784, contain among the names of the persons by whom

.he journeys were performed the name of

Pickwick, who probably resided in or near Bath. The earlier advertisements contain

he words "performed if God permit," or

' God permitting," in much the same form as the old bills of lading relating to the cargo of a ship. Long before 1754 there were coaches running between Bristol and London which were called "Flyers," and advertise- ments of other coaches announced that they would "fly" hence, probably, the term

fly," which even now is frequently used as a description of the ordinary cab. It is, I think, not very difficult to imagine how the " machine " came to be described as a " flying machine." G. E. WEARE.


When I lived in Scotland the name "machine" was almost the only one used for a carriage in country places, especially, if I remember rightly, one with a single horse. No doubt the name is so used there still.



"FADGE" (9 th S. ix. I). Apropos of "a fadge of potatoes " in this note, I remember that fifty years ago and it probably is so still in the north of Ireland the ordinary potato bannock was spoken of as fadge. It was a circular unleavened cake, made of potatoes and flour and done on a griddle, like a very thick Indian chapatti. It was thick enough to be split and buttered, to be eaten hot. MICHAEL FERRAR.

Little Gidding, in Ealing.