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NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH 29, 1902.


house to hear the newspaper read which was Colberts Register. Its price was then 7d., and afterwards Is. 2d. His father's house was the only one where the paper was taken in. Young Haslam served a seven-year apprenticeship to a Mr. Blakey, a hatter and furrier in Morpeth, who was the first mayor of the town. He lost business through being an agitator for the Reform Bill. Being a Poor Law guardian, he was for mercy when his colleagues were cruel to the poor, which caused him to lose more trade. In 1829 young Haslam went to Manchester, where he joined the Radicals, and often heard Henry Hunt and William Cobbett speak. He never heard of the Charter until the report of the public meeting in London introducing it made it known to all. Then he said, " We all became Chartists." Afterwards he spoke at meetings of Socialists, as co-operators were then called. They were advocates of industrial cities, not exponents of what is now known as Socialism, which the State is to administer. Haslam was many times in Robert Owen's company. At that time Haslam wrote ' Letters to the Clergy of all Denominations.' There were twenty-four letters in all, setting forth that the writer did not believe in the Scripture being divinely inspired, and his dislike to persons preaching as though it was, when it was not. The Bishop of Exeter, then Dr. Phillpotts, thought it necessary to bring these letters before the House of Lords. The bishop represented that the letters would obliterate morality and religion. Their in- tention was the very reverse, for Haslam believed in rational religion and morality, and remained a believer in God all his life. Yet Henry Hetherington, a London book- seller, was imprisoned nine months for selling these letters. Haslam resided in Manchester from 1829 to 1860. He was afterwards in business as a chemist in Newcastle-ori-Tyne. Gamage, a Newcastle Chartist, qualified him- self as a physician, and probably Haslam took lessons in chemistry. In 1879 he was able to retire, and was hale and hearty until within a few years of his death. In addition to the 'Letters to the Clergy ' he wrote ' The Moral Catechism,' a substitute for the Church Catechism, and the 'Light of Reason.' He died at the house of his son-in-law in Buhner btreet, Newcastle-ori-Tyne, 22 Feb., 1902.

. G- J. HOLYOAKE.

Eastern Lodge, Brighton.

ST. CLEMENT DANES (9 th S. vii. 64, 173, 274 375 ; yiii. 17, 86, 186, 326, 465 ; ix. 52, 136). A curious freak of nomenclature, like that pointed out by COL. PRIDEAUX with regard


to the absence of " castle " and " street " from that of Southern Europe, occurs in England and Germany with reference to names de- rived from fons, /<mtana=fountain, which in England are replaced by spring, bourne, well, in Germany by Brunne, Quelle ; nor have we any names derived from aquae, corre- sponding to the Aigue, Aigues, Aix, Dax, Ax, Acqui, Aguas, of the Continent. This is the more remarkable because Bath (Aquae Sulis) was not taken by the Saxons until A.D. 577, and the Germans, who usually use Baden or Bad like the Spanish and Portu- guese Caldos and Calida have kept the name Aachen for Aix-la-Chapelle (Ci vitas Aquensis). What is Spa derived from ? When, moreover, the Dutch colonized South Africa, a region so like Southern Europe in its physical geography, they at once adopted the word fontein = " spring " in their place-names, though I do not think the word occurs as a termination in either the Netherlands or Flanders. Fontaine, of course, is often found in Walloon districts of Belgium. The fact is the more remarkable, as the termina- tion is not common, if it occurs at all, in the well- watered districts of the Cape pen- insula, which were the first colonized by the Dutch and Huguenot settlers, whilst it is universal over the Karroo, which was not reached by the Dutch, except as hunters or traders, until long after the French language had died out at the Cape. Can any reason be given why they should have adopted the word fontaine to designate the isolated springs in the Karroo, whilst retaining the Dutch word pan for water- holes ? There were very few Walloons in the service of the Dutch East India Company, nor do I think fontaine is a commonplace termination in either Languedoc or Daupnine, from which most of the Huguenots settled at the Cape appear to have come.

As regards ivich, wick, I quite agree with your correspondent that there is room both for the Norse and the Latin words in Eng- land. If we omit North Northumberland, the term wich = vik is certainly found on our east coast within geographical limits corresponding generally with those of the "Saxon shore" of the latest Roman period, whilst the western limits of wick=vicus, in the south-western peninsula, at all events, viz., the Devon Axe and the Parret, agree fairly well with the limits of Roman settle- ment (of which comparatively few traces occur either in West Somerset, Devon, or Cornwall), corresponding with the old terri- tories of the Damnonii and Cornubii, through- out which Cornish continued to be spoken