NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. ix. JUNE 7, 1902.
spicuously not only in the Beauforts, but i other branches of the family, notably th Galloways ; for it is as unmistakable a fea ture in Lord Galloway's brothers and sister as it was in his mother (born a Somerset] and in his brother, the late earl.
Apropos of Lord Ronald's book, I canno refrain from adding that I have never in my experience seen in a single volume such a collection of misspelt proper names, English French, German, and Italian. In German the noble author's rule seems to be, " Wher in doubt put a double dot"; hence such weirc forms as Nassau Hof, Bayerischer Hof Scottischer, and Schloss Eltz, to say nothing of Karlsbruke and Dusseldorff. "Lettres Athenians " is a typical bit of French ; while in Italian we have a " terra motta," Bprghes for Borghese, Peatti (the violoncellist) for Piatti, "feminili" for feminile, del Angel: for degl' Angeli, Olivetto for Oliveto, Catte rina for Caterina, and (indifferently) Pont: Konisi and Pontoi Konosi (this perhaps is meant for Greek). But English names fare little better, even those of the " high nobility ' with whom Lord Ronald is presumably con versant. The Marchioness Conyngham twice figures as Cunningham, Mr. Philip Stanhope as Phillip, Lord Erroll as Errol, Lord Plunket as Plunkett, Lord Saye and Sele as Say and Sele, Lord Revelstoke as Revelstroke, and so well-known a lady as Madame de Navarro (Mary Anderson) as Navarino ! The Empress Frederick is Frederic as often as not, and Magdalen College, Oxford, is Magdalene.
These instances, noted and quoted almost at random, will show what a curiosity of in- accurate spelling the book is. The grammar, too, is often " sadly to seek "; but, en revanche, the 'Old Diaries' are often interesting, even amusing, and they are not at all ill-natured. D. OSWALD HUNTER-BLAIR, O.S.B. Oxford.
GAVARNI AND BALLOONING. In view of the recent artistic ball in Paris, taking place as it did at a time when flying machines are (both metaphorically and literally) "in the air," it may not be uninteresting to the readers of ' N. & Q.' if I venture to quote two or three lines from the 'Imp. Diet. Univ. Biog.' concerning the " sunset" of the great carica- turist's life : " Of late Gavarni is said to have returned to his mechanical pursuits, being deeply occupied in solving the problem of rendering balloons navigable."
HERBERT B. CLAYTON.
"HATEFUL." The 'H.E.D.' gives no ex- ample of " hateful " used in the sense of full of Jiate, cherishing hatred, malignant, from
any nineteenth-century prose writer (the passage quoted from the Universal Review, 15 June, 1890, is apparently in verse). There is a good instance in R. L. Stevenson's ' Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde/ paragraph 8 of the first chapter (* Story of the Door'): "I never saw a circle of such hateful faces." The context makes it clear that the adjective here bears the meaning " full of hate."
A German writer has said, "Ein untriig- liches Kennzeichen eines allgemein gewor- denen Citats ist die Veranderung seiner urspriinglichen Form." If the same holds good of characters in fiction, one need not be surprised at the appearance of "Jekyl- Hyde [sic] dogs " in a recent American book ('Wild Animals I have Known,' by E. S. Thompson, Nutt, 1901). EDWARD BENSLY.
The University, Adelaide.
WILLIAM IV. Anent the numerical ob- jection that has been raised to the title of Edward VII. in Scotland, it is interesting to note that when Queen Victoria's predecessor came to the throne it was pointed out that he was at the same time William L, II., III., and IV. : L, as King of Hanover, which was not added till the first George ; II., as King of Ireland, which was not conquered till Henry II. ; III., as King of Scotland ; and IV., as King of England. 1 take this note Prom p. 9 of Sir John Mowbray's 4 Seventy Years at Westminster.' ST. SWITHIN.
"UPWARDS OF." A correspondence that nas recently been carried on in the Yorkshire Post reveals the curious fact that in that county and the neighbouring parts of Lin- colnshire (and possibly over an even wider area) this phrase is commonly used in the sense of less than, or rising towards. As one correspondent puts it, " ' Upwards of ' means to a thorough country-bred Yorkshireman) almost,' or 'approaching to,' or, as we say n some parts of Yorkshire, ' close on.' " It s still more curious to hear it asserted that /his use of the phrase is " good colloquial " English, and quite as defensible as theestab- ished use. C. C. B.
SHORTHAND IN THE THIRD CENTURY. To
he interesting note (ante, p. 406) of MR. AXON
>n the Armenian 'Acts of St. Callistratus '
have an analogue out of Eusebius, who
writes in his 'Histpria Ecclesiastica,' vi.
ap. xxiii., 'De Originis Studio':
" Ex eo tempore etiam Origenes in divinas scrip-
uras commentaries ccepit conscribere, Ambrosio
nnumeris stimulis eum incitante, nee solum verbis
tque hortationibus, sed etiam largissimis rerum