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Page:Notes on the State of Virginia (1853).djvu/57

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VEGETABLES.

Query? Ground oak—Quercus pumila. Clayton. Live oak—Quercus Virginiana. Millar. Black birch—Betula nigra. White birch—Betula alba. Beach—Fagus sylvatica. Ash—Fraxinus Americana, Fraxinus Novæ Angliæ. Millar. Elm—Ulmus Americana. Willow—Salix. Query, species? Fluvialis. Bartr. 393. Sweet Gum—Liquidambar styraciflua.

The following were found in Virginia when first visited by the English; but it is not said whether of spontaneous growth, or by cultivation only. Most probably they were natives of more Southern climates, and handed along the continent from one nation to another of the savages:

Tobacco—Nicotiana. [1]Maize—Zea mays, [2]Round po-

  1. Qu. If known in Europe before the discovery of America? Ramusic supposes this to be the grain described by Diod. Sic. L. 2, in his account of the travels of Iambulus, in the following passage: “Φύεσθαι γὰρ παῤ αὐτοῖς χὰλαμον πολύν, φέροντα χαρπὸν δαψιλῆ, παρεμφερῆ τοῖς λευχοῖς ὀρόβοις. [Ceci bianchi.—Ital. Ers. Franc] “Τοῦτον οὔν συναγαγόντες βρέχουσιν ἐν ὕδατι θερμῶ, μέχρις ὰν τὸ μέγεθος ἔχωσιν ὡς ὠοῦ περιστερᾶς. ἔπειτα συνθλὰσαντες χαὶ τρίψαντες ἐμπείρως ταῖς χερσί, διαπλὰττουσιν ἄρτους. οὓς ὀπτήσαντες σιτοῦνται, διαφόρους ὄντας τῆ γλυχύτητι.” Ramusic says of the Maize “in Italia, a i tempi nostri, [1550,] é stato, veduto ‘la prima volta,’ and the island in which it was found by Iambulus was Sumatra.—1. Ramus. 174. The Maison rustique says that Turkey Corn came first from the West Indies into Turkey, and from thence into France.”—L. 5, c. 17. Zimmerman says: “Il tire son origine des pays chauds de l'Amerique.”—Zoologie geographique, page 24. “Il frumentone fu dalla America in Ispagne, e quindi in altri paesi della Europa.” “Dalli Spagnuoli di Europa e di America è chiamato il frumentone col nome Maiz, preso dalla lingua Haitina che si parlava nella isola oggidi appellata Spagnuola, o sia di S. Domenico.”—Clavigero I., 56. “Il frumentone, biada dalla providenza accordata a quella parte del mondo in vece del frumento dell Europa, del riso del Asia, e del miglio d'Africa.”—2. Clavig. 218. Acosta classes Indian Corn with the plants peculiar to America, observing that it is called “trigo de las Indias” in Spain, and “Grano de Turquia” in Italy. He says, “De donde fue el Mayz a Indias, y porque este grano tan provechoso le llaman en Italia Grano de Turquia mejor sabre preguntárlo, que dezirlo. Porque en efecto en los antiques no hallo rastro deste genero, aunque el Milio que Plinio escrive aver venido a Italia de la India diez años avia, quando escrivio, tiene alguna similitud con el Mayz, en lo que dize que es grano, y que nace en caña, y se cubre de hoja, y que tiene al remate como cabellos, y el ser fertilissimo, todo lo qual no quadra con el Mijo, que comunmente entienden por Milio, en fin, repartio el Criador a todas partes su gobierno: a este orbe dio el triga que es el principal sustento de los hombres: a aquel de Indias dio el Mayz, que tras el trigo tiene el segundo lugar, para sustenta de hombres, y animales.—Acosta 4, 16.
  2. “Les pommes de terre sont indigenes en Guiane.”—Zimmerman Zool. Geogr. 26. “La Papa fu portata in Messico dall' America Meridionale, suo proprio paese.”—1. Clavigero 58.