188 4 F. G. YOUNG 8. Author Asa Whitney, 1841 or 1844, project for a rail- road to the Pacific ; memorials to Congress. Means Grant of land sixty miles wide, thirty on each side of road. Purpose To bind together the opposite shores of the con- tinent ; to make America the axle of the commerce of the world. Route From Lake Michigan to the Pacific Coast. 9. Author George Wilkes, History of Oregon, Geographical and Political (Colyer), 1845. Means Appropriations by Congress ; expected increased sales of public domain would easily furnish means. Purpose Mainly to get trade of Orient. Route The "Old Oregon Trail." 10. Author Albert Pike, at Memphis convention, 1849. Means Loan of National credit. Purpose and Route No data. 11. Author Thomas H. Benton, his prediction, 1844. Championed National project between territories. At first favored portage between highest points accessible with steam- boats on Missouri and the Columbia. Later favored a South- ern route. Benton is credited with having defeated Whitney's project before Congress in 1848. Wilkes' project found most favor during this period in the Oregon settlements. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. Bancroft, Hubert Hozve History of California, V. VII., Chap- ter XIX, pp. 494-514 (Volume XXIV of the general series of Pacific States Histories). Bancroft's narrative furnishes basis of other secondary sources. These, however, commonly add one or more names of early projectors of schemes and quote freely from the favor- ite they introduce into the list of advocates of a transcontinental
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