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Page:Oregon Historical Quarterly volume 12.djvu/285

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REPORT ON OREGON TERRITORY 277 It then pursues a southerly course, receiving the waters of the Chilcouten, Pinkslitsa, and several small streams from the west, and those of Thompsons River, Quisnels, and other streams from the east (these take their rise in lakes, and a few may be navigated in canoes by making portages), and under the parallel of 49 it breaks through the Cascade Range in a succession of falls and rapids, and after a westerly course of 70 miles it empties into the Gulf of Georgia in the latitude of 49 07' north. This latter portion is navigable for vessels that can pass its bar drawing 12 feet of water; its whole length being 350 miles. The Chikeeles is next in importance. It has three sources among the range of hills that intersect the country north of the Columbia River. After a very tortuous course and receiving some smaller streams issuing from the lakes in the high ground near the headwaters of Hoods Canal and Puget Sound, it dis- embogues in Grays Harbor. It is not navigable except for canoes ; its current is rapid and the stream much obstructed. To the south of Columbia there are many small streams, but three of which deserve the name of rivers, the Umpqua, Too- too-tut-na (or Roque River), and the Klamet, which latter empties into the ocean south of the paralled of 42. None of these form harbors capable of receiving a vessel of more than 8 feet draft of water, and the bars for the most part of the year are impassable from the surf that sets in on the coast. The character of the great rivers is peculiar, rapid and sunken much below the level of the country, with perpendicular banks; indeed, they are, as it were, in trenches, it being ex- tremely difficult to get at the water in many places owing to the steep basaltic walls, and during their rise they are in places confined by walls, which back the water some distance, sub- merging islands and tracts of low prairie, having the appear- ance of extensive lakes. LAKES. There are in the various sections of the country many large and small lakes. The largest of these are the Okanogan Chain,