348 W. C. WOODWARD following from the same source, following the Union ticket victory: 1 "The Viva Voce system, in spite of manifest imper- fections, has once for all proved itself a good institution, and some in this state who helped forge the bolt, gnashed their teeth to see it so successfully turned against them, now that they are, in a weak minority and an evil cause." It was the business of the legislature which met in Septem- ber to elect a United States senator to complete the term to which Col. Baker had been elected and in which Stark was temporarily serving by appointment. In the organization of the session, Dr. Wilson Bowlby, Republican, was elected presi- dent of the senate, and Joel Palmer, Union Democrat, speaker of the house. J. R. McBride at once introduced a set of strong resolutions proclaiming loyalty to the Union and defiance to traitors, which were unanimously adopted in both houses. One resolution denounced "the weak and wicked scheme of a Pa- cific Confederacy." Another asserted that the issues of the times demanded that patriots eschew partisan questions of the past and unite in support of the Government. There were but three members of the legislature who "bore the stain of seces- sion or marks treasonable proclivities." 2 And of these, two were holdovers in the senate. The inaugural address of Gibbs, Oregon's "war governor," was virile and to the point, breathing aggressive loyalty and a firm determination to support the National Executive in every way. In contrast to this was the expiring message of White- aker, extended, and marked by a doleful wail anent the wicked war, justifying the South in its point of view. 3 Balloting for senator began September 11. The recognized leading candidates from the first were, B. F. Harding, member of the old Salem Clique, Judge Williams and Rev. Thos. H. Pearne, editor of the Pacific Christian Advocate. The first ballot stood : Harding, 7 ; Pearne, 9 ; Williams, 7 ; E. L. Applegate, 8 ; Orange Jacobs, 5 ; Whiteaker, 3 ( representing 1 Ibid., June 7, 1862. 2 Oregonian, Sep. 13. 3 Statesman, Sep. 15.
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