having the form of the body fish-like, the skin naked, and only the forelimbs developed.
CHELONIA.—An order of reptiles including the turtles, tortoises, &c.
CIRRIPEDES.—An order of crustaceans including the barnacles and acorn-shells. Their young resemble those of many other crustaceans in form; but when mature they are always attached to other objects, either directly or by means of a stalk, and their bodies are enclosed by a calcareous shell composed of several pieces, two of which can open to give issue to a bunch of curled, jointed tentacles, which represent the limbs.
COCCUS.—The genus of insects including the cochineal. In these the male is a minute, winged fly, and the female generally a motionless, berry-like mass.
COCOON.—A case usually of silky material, in which insects are frequently enveloped during the second or resting-stage (pupa) of their existence. The term "cocoon-stage" is here used as equivalent to "pupa-stage."
COELOSPERMOUS.—A term applied to those fruits of the Umbelliferæ which have the seed hollowed on the inner face.
COLEOPTERA.—beetles, an order of insects, having a biting mouth and the first pair of wings more or less horny, forming sheaths for the second pair, and usually meeting in a straight line down the middle of the back.
COLUMN.—A peculiar organ in the flowers of orchids, in which the stamens, style and stigma (or the reproductive parts) are united.
COMPOSITÆ, or COMPOSITOUS PLANTS.—Plants in which the inflorescence consists of numerous small flowers (florets) brought together into a dense head, the base of which is enclosed by a common envelope. (Examples, the daisy, dandelion, &c.)
CONFERVÆ.—The filamentous weeds of fresh water.
CONGLOMERATE.—A rock made up of fragments of rock or pebbles, cemented together by some other material.
COROLLA.—The second envelope of a flower usually composed of coloured, leaf-like organs (petals), which may be united by their edges either in the basal part or throughout.
CORRELATION.—The normal coincidence of one phenomenon, character, &c., with another.
CORYMB.—A bunch of flowers in which those springing from the lower part of the flower stalk are supported on long stalks so as to be nearly on a level with the upper ones.
COTYLEDONS.—The first or seed-leaves of plants.
CRUSTACEANS.—A class of articulated animals, having the skin of the body generally more or less hardened by the deposition of calcareous matter, breathing by means of gills. (Examples, crab, lobster, shrimp, &c.)
CURCULIO.—The old generic term for the beetles known as weevils, characterised by their four-jointed feet, and by the head being produced into a sort of beak, upon the sides of which the antennæ are inserted.
CUTANEOUS.—Of or belonging to the skin.
DEGRADATION.—The wearing down of land by the action of the sea or of meteoric agencies.