Page:Philosophical Transactions - Volume 095.djvu/40

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
Mr. Carlisle's Lecture

fear produce the same effect suddenly: whilst the contrary feelings, such as the prospect of immediate enjoyment, or moderate hilarity, give more than ordinary vigour.

It is a very remarkable fact in the history of animal nature, that the mental operations may become almost automatic, and, under such habit; be kept in action, without any interval of rest, far beyond the time which the ordinary state of health permits, as in the examples of certain maniacs, who are enabled without any inconvenience, to exert both mind and body for many days incessantly: The habits of particular modes of labour and exercise are soon acquired, after which, the actions become automatic, demand little attention, cease to be irksome, and are effected with little fatigue: by this happy provision of nature, the habit of industry becomes a source of pleasure, and the same appears to be extended to the docile animals which co operate with man in his labours.

Three classes of muscles are found in the more complicated animals. Those which are constantly governed by the will, or directing power of the mind, are called voluntary muscles. Another class, which operate without the consciousness of the mind, are denominated involuntary; and a mixed kind occur in the example of respiratory muscles, which are governed by the will to a limited extent; nevertheless the exigencies of the animal feelings eventually urge the respiratory movements in despight of the will. These last muscles appear to have become automatic by the continuance of habit.

The uses of voluntary muscles are attained by experience, imitation, and instruction: but some of them are never called into action among Europeans, as the muscles of the external ears, and generally the occipito-frontalis. The purely invo-