Hence also the opinion that there is a profound separation between the principles applicable in the physical sciences and the principles applicable in the moral sciences. What has been the consequence? It has been that the method which is no longer regarded as a rational procedure in dealing with the phenomena of Nature is followed without misgiving in dealing with the phenomena of human nature; and the supernaturalism long banished from physical theories is still invoked in psychological and social theories.
Of late years this has ceased to be the universal error, though it still remains a wide-spread error. We are slowly beginning to recognize that there may be a science of History, a science of Language, a science of Religion, and, in fact, that all knowledge may be systematized on a common method. The facts of the External Order, which yield a cosmology, are supplemented by the facts of the Internal Order, which yield a psychology, and the facts of the Social Order, which yield a sociology. These are all comprised in science. However imperfect the second and third may be, in comparison with the first, the greater complication of the phenomena does not warrant the introduction of another Logic of Search. The principles which have guided us successfully in the first are to be followed in the others. The three classes of facts are all facts of experience, so far as they are known, and must all be tested, classified, and systematized, by the same rules.
This being so, we can separate the rational from the irrational antagonism against science. It is rational when protesting against the misplaced application of the results reached in one department to problems belonging to a different department—for this is an offense against scientific method. It is irrational when protesting against the rigorous application of one logic to all inquiries. Those, therefore, who sneer at science, and would obstruct its diffusion, are sneering against the effort to make all knowledge systematic, and are obstructing the advance of civilization.
The notion, implied or expressed, of two Logics, two Methods of Search, two systems of explaining phenomena, the natural and the supernatural, is the foundation of the great conflict between Science and Theology. And since, in the majority of minds, theology is identified with religion, and religion is of supreme importance to man, it is natural that science should be regarded with dread and dislike. Before proceeding to dissipate the confusions on this subject, it will be needful to glance at the attitude of sincere theologians in our day, and at the reasons which justify to their minds the acceptance of scientific doctrines side by side with the acceptance of theological doctrines. It would be equally ungenerous and short-sighted to suggest that a mind which is deeply impressed with the truth of certain theological opinions may not be also deeply impressed with the beneficence of science in general, and the truth of scientific doctrines which do not directly embrace moral and religious questions. We have too many conspicu-