neither more nor less reason for dealing critically with the one case than with the other. Whatever evidence is satisfactory in one case is satisfactory in the other; and if any one should travel outside the lines of scientific evidence, and endeavor either to support or oppose conclusions which are based upon distinctly scientific truths, by considerations which are not in any way based upon scientific logic or scientific truth—whether that mode of advocacy was in favor of a given position, or whether it was against it—I, occupying the chair of the section, should, most undoubtedly, feel myself called upon to call him to order, and to tell him that he was introducing considerations with which we had no concern whatever.
I have occupied your attention for a considerable time; yet there is still one other point respecting which I should like to say a few words, because some very striking reflections arose out of it. The British Association met in Dublin twenty-one years ago, and I have taken the pains to look up what was done in regard to our subject at that period. At that time there was no anthropological department. That study had not yet differentiated itself from zoölogy, or anatomy, or physiology, so as to claim for itself a distinct place. Moreover, without reverting needlessly to the remarks which I placed before you some time ago, it was a very volcanic subject, and people rather liked to leave it alone. It was not until a long time subsequently that the present organization of this section of the Association was brought about; but it is a curious fact that, although proper anthropological subjects were at the time brought before the Geographical Section—with the proper subject of which they had nothing whatever to do—I find that even then more than half of the papers that were brought before that section were, more or less distinctly, of an anthropological cast. It is very curious to observe what that cast was. We had systems of language—we had descriptions of savage races—we had the great question, as it then was thought, of the unity or multiplicity of the human species. These were just touched upon, but there was not an allusion in the whole of the proceedings of the Association at that time to those questions which are now to be regarded as the burning questions of anthropology. The whole tendency in the present direction was given by the publication of a single book, and that not a very large one—namely, "The Origin of Species." It was only subsequent to the publication of the ideas contained in that book that one of the most powerful instruments for the advance of anthropological knowledge—namely, the Anthropological Society of Paris—was founded. Afterward the Anthropological Institute of this country and the great Anthropological Society of Berlin came into existence, until it may be said that now there is not a branch of science which is represented by a larger or more active body of workers than the science of anthropology. But the whole of these workers are engaged, more or less intentionally, in providing the data for attacking the ultimate great problem,