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LITERARY NOTICES.

interesting examples of the purest and simplest democracy and of well-contrived and enduring republican institutions to be found in the annals of Europe. The two chapters on this country are, perhaps, the most praiseworthy in the whole book; Calvin is judged without fanaticism, if we overlook the too great importance attributed to his reforms in connection with the freedom and democracy of the country.

The progress of democracy in the Netherlands is followed up in the first two chapters of the second volume. "Two aspects of democracy," says the author, "are here illustrated, the growth and political power of municipal institutions and the assertion of civil and religious liberty." He delineates the first of these aspects by recounting the civil history of the Netherlands up to the reign of Charles V.; the second aspect is developed in the description of the bloody measures adopted by Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain to crush out the growing spirit of the Reformation, and in the subsequent struggles of these countries for political independence. The career of William of Orange, the shrewdness and bravery he opposed to craftiness and revolting barbarity, the fruitless attempts of the persecutors to corrupt him, and the finally successful attempt to assassinate this apostle of civil and religious liberty—these are necessarily interwoven into the story of the struggle for the rights of conscience—the first and most memorable of the kind in the world's history. After dwelling at length on the share of freedom afterward enjoyed by the Low Countries, and the subsequent decline of their fortunes, he closes with a short notice of ultramontanism in Belgium and of the contemporary prosperity of that country and Holland.

Report on Forestry. By F. B. Hough. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 650. Economic Tree-Planting. By B. G. Northrop. From "Report of the Secretary of the Connecticut State Board of Agriculture." Pp. 29.

Dr. Hough's industry in collecting the materials of this "Report" is worthy of all praise; not less so is the intelligent use which he makes of them. The volume is indeed a storehouse of facts relating to forestry, and the information which it contains is of very great practical importance. The destruction of forests brings about great climatal changes, and the history of Spain and other countries shows how regions that once were fruitful have been changed into barren deserts by the reckless clearing of woodland. The time has come for taking concerted action toward "reforestation" in the United States. Dr. Hough considers in detail many of the problems which present themselves for solution—as the comparative advantages of sowing and planting, the proper number of trees to an acre, the adaptedness of different species to different localities, etc.; and Mr. Northrop goes over much of the same ground, though of course less fully, and with especial reference to the needs of the State of Connecticut. On these and sundry other points Dr. Hough quotes the experience of practical and scientific men, giving in full many documents of the highest value. Then follow statistical tables showing the consumption of wood in different industries, for household uses, railroads, etc. The relations between forests and climate are discussed in extenso, and Becquerel's "Memoir" on that subject is given in full. A sketch of the "Schools of Forestry" in various European countries is given, with a view to suggest hints for the guidance of forest-conservators in the United States. We recommend both of these publications to the earnest attention of our readers.

A New Cyclopædia of Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical, as applied to the Arts and Manufactures. By Writers of Eminence, on the Basis of the Late Dr. Muspratt's Work. Illustrated with numerous Woodcuts and Steel Plate Engravings. Philadelphia: Lippincott & Co. 50 cts. per number.

This comprehensive and valuable work, which is announced to consist of forty parts, has now reached the thirty-fifth part, and its completion may therefore be soon expected. The work has been executed with care and ability, and we have found it useful and satisfactory for habitual reference on the extensive and important subjects of chemical manufacture. Its illustrations are numerous and elaborate, the text clear and attractive, and the treatment of subjects full, copious, and trustworthy.