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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

the principles of evolution. In the first volume of his "Natural History of Invertebrate Animals"[1] he gave his theory in detail; and today one can only read with astonishment his far-reaching anticipations of modern science. These views were strongly supported by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, but bitterly opposed by Cuvier; and their great contest on this subject is well known.

In looking back from this point of view, the philosophical breadth of Lamarck's conclusions, in comparison with those of Cuvier, is clearly evident. The invertebrates on which Lamarck worked offered less striking evidence of change than the various animals investigated by Cuvier; yet they led Lamarck directly to evolution, while Cuvier ignored what was before him on this point, and rejected the proof offered by others. Both pursued the same methods, and had an abundance of material on which to work, yet the facts observed induced Cuvier to believe in catastrophes, and Lamarck in the uniform course of nature. Cuvier declared species to be permanent, Lamarck that they were descended from others. Both men stand in the first rank in science, but Lamarck was the prophetic genius half a century in advance of his time.

[To be continued.]

 

THE BEGINNINGS OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCE.
By GEORGE A. JACKSON.

NO other science has to-day so distinguished a patronage as that of geography. In September, 1877, there convened at Brussels, in a palace of the King of the Belgians, and at his invitation, a Congress made up of the presidents of the leading geographical societies, and the most distinguished geographical writers, and explorers, and patrons of explorations, in the world. At that Congress was formed an association, under the presidency of King Leopold II., which has for its object the exploring, and opening up to science and civilization, of the whole unknown territory of Central Africa. Branches of this organization are formed in nearly all the nations of Europe, and are, as a rule, under the direction of the royal houses. Mr. Stanley also, in his "Dark Continent," makes hearty acknowledgment of encouragements and rewards received at royal hands. And as in these last days, so in the first days of its history, royal patronage did much to promote geographical science. The very earliest knowledge of geography was doubtless gained in a blind way, as men went to neighboring countries in the pursuit of trade; but Herodotus tells us that so far back as 640

  1. "Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres," 7 vols., Paris, 1815–1822. Second edition, 11 vols., 1835–1845.