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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 19.djvu/327

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EUROPEAN SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY.

give instruction upon the subject. The course was greatly deficient, at the best, on account of its entire lack of technical teaching. This defect, felt more and more, finally led to the establishment of an academy for forest instruction at Berlin in 1821, under the general superintendence of Pfeil, then Oberforstrath. The academy was not organically connected with the university, but was brought into such an association with it that the professors and apparatus of instruction belonging to the university could be used for teaching the fundamental and accessory sciences, while technical forestry was taught by professors in the academy specially qualified for the work. This arrangement, however, did not prove satisfactory. Too much prominence was given to the accessory sciences, and too little to forestry proper. Especially was the lack of sufficient instruction in practical forestry felt, there being no suitable woodland in the neighborhood of Berlin in which the theoretical instruction could be practically illustrated and applied. Excursions to distant forests, which could be made only infrequently, did not meet the want. On the advice of the superintendent, seconded by the energetic support of the two Humboldts, the academy was removed in 1830 to Neustadt-Eberswalde, about twenty-four miles northeast of Berlin, under the name of the High Institution for Forest Science. The school was now in the immediate vicinity of two large forest districts, affording every facility for instruction in practical forestry. The superintendent of the academy was made also administrator of the forest districts. Associated with him, as instructor in forestry proper, were two others as teachers of the natural sciences and of mathematics and geodesy. At the same time a teacher of Prussian jurisprudence, with particular reference to forest matters, was added, and, after an interval of twenty years, a second teacher of forest science was appointed. Since 1866 important changes have been made in the organization of the academy, and the number of instructors has been largely increased. There are now three teachers of forest science, a teacher of mathematics, physics, mechanics, and meteorology; one of chemistry, mineralogy, and geognosy; one of botany, one of zoology, and one of jurisprudence. In addition, there are a royal chief forest officer, as assistant teacher of road-construction, geodesy, and plan-drawing, and also a chemist as assistant teacher of geology. The principal forest meteorological station of Germany is also in connection with this school.

The course of instruction in the schools of forestry extends from two years to two and a half, or five semesters, the tendency having been constantly to protract the time. The course at Neustadt-Eberswalde embraces five semesters. The branches taught are arranged in three groups, viz., "Fundamental Sciences," "Principal Sciences," and "Secondary Sciences." Under the heading of "Fundamental Sciences" are included: 1. Natural Sciences.—Chemistry, theoretic and applied; physics and meteorology; mineralogy and geognosy; botany, and