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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

so as to take on something of the scientific form.

There has never been a lack of interest in the subject, and its claims and rank were neatly formulated by the poet, in his celebrated line—

"The proper study of mankind is man,"

long before the proper method of the study was discovered. Anthropological science—that is, the systematic and comprehensive study of the human race by scientific methods—belongs to the last half-century. A great amount of valuable knowledge has been accumulated upon the subject during that time, and digested in many voluminous treatises. But there was wanting a textbook that should sum up the leading facts and fundamental principles of the science in an authoritative and trustworthy manner, and in a form convenient and suitable for general use. Such a work is the one before us.

It need hardly be said that this is no field for the ordinary compiler. He may do useful service in the old sciences, where the subject-matter has been many times elaborated, and the method of exposition long settled; but only a master who knows his subject at first hand, broadly and thoroughly, can be trusted to present so vast a subject, and so rich in new and varied materials, in the due proportions of its parts, and in a compact, well-organized, and authentic form. Mr. Tylor, of all living men, was best prepared to accomplish this task. His elaborate works on "The Early History of Mankind" and on "Primitive Culture" have given him an eminent place as a pioneer and constructive student in the domain of anthropology. He has accordingly been long solicited to prepare a textbook upon this subject, for the use of students in high-schools and colleges, as it has been well understood that this science must soon take a leading and permanent place in the curriculum of a liberal education. The pressure of original studies prevented him from undertaking the work, and has much delayed it, but he has not allowed himself to be unduly hurried, well knowing the difficulty of giving his exposition a satisfactory form within the convenient limits of a handy-volume. But he has fulfilled the utmost expectations, and made his "Anthropology" the one unrivaled book upon that science for general educational purposes.

Of course, the scientific study of "Man and Civilization" can now be pursued only in the light of the doctrine of evolution. It is this law, indeed, that brings the facts of this subject into order, and gives organic method to the science. Anthropology is by no means a mere description of the different races and varieties of men; it deals also with the deeper problems of their transformation from lower to higher conditions, and with the development of all those elements which give rise to the civilized state. This is the underlying conception of the science, and how fundamental it is in the plan of Mr. Tylor's work may be best illustrated by briefly referring to the contents of his successive chapters.

In his first chapter, on "Man, Ancient and Modern," he opens up the new point of view from which man is to be studied. He then proceeds to define and fix the place of man in nature as related to other animals, considering the succession and descent of species, and the comparison of structure and brain endowments with inferior creatures. Chapter III is devoted to "The Races of Mankind," and is descriptive of their characteristics. The text is here illustrated by profuse and finely executed illustrations, of which we gave samples in the July "Monthly." The constitution, temperaments, types, permanence, mixture, and variation of races are here discussed, and the races of mankind are classified on the basis of these traits. The summary of the subject is admirable.

Chapters IV and V are devoted to "Language," which is of course considered as a problem of evolution. From the utterances of animals and the natural language of signs and gestures, and from emotional and imitative sounds, he proceeds to the origin of articulate language. The growth of meanings in articulate speech, abstract words, grammatical construction, and analytic and synthetic language, are then traced, with other important steps and elements of lingual development. Chapter VI, on "Language and Race," gives an account of the derivations and relationships of the languages used by different races; and Chap-