Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 20.djvu/602

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a lower degree by men, but has escaped registration as a masculine trait. In his classification of the mental powers of the two sexes, Mr. Darwin puts observation, reason, imagination, and invention as those especially selected in man, and likeliest to be transmitted to male off-spring. He also says: "It is generally admitted that with woman the powers of intuition, of rapid perception, and perhaps of imitation, are more strongly marked than in man; but some, at least, of these faculties are characteristic of the lower races, and therefore of a past and lower state of civilization."


COARSE or extensive paralyses, such as involve one or both sides of the body, and other profound disturbances of the muscular system, have received much attention from clinical and pathological observers, and by the accumulation of their joint observations much knowledge has been gained as to the symptoms that result from lesions of the brain. This should encourage us to observe in all cases the conditions of the muscles, knowing that the movements correspond to certain states of the moto-centers, and looking upon such nerve-conditions as indications or expressions of the states of those centers. All expression of feeling is effected by muscular action, whether it be by words, by facial movement or gesture, movements effected by voluntary muscles; or expression may be produced by dilatation of the pupil, erection of the hair, or disturbed action of the heart, these being due to the conditions of inorganic muscular fibers. I have been accustomed to regard the nerve-muscular condition of "nervous cases," when seeking definite signs by which to describe them, in the light of the principle that movements depend upon nerve-muscular stimuli originating in nerve-centers. Examples may easily be given, showing how we commonly judge of the state of the nervous system by muscular conditions. Note the stooping attitude and spiritless gait of a tired man as compared with that of the same individual when rested and refreshed. Incipient intoxication is indicated by a reeling gait, unsteady hand, and muscular tremor. Expression may be indicated by the position of the head, which is seen firmly upright in defiance, drooping in shame; is commonly held on one side in nervous women and girls convalescent from chorea, the first example cited of an asymmetrical gesture. The artist's brush or pencil, the sculptor's modeling-tool and chisel, the pianist's and violinist's finger-touch, indicate the training

  1. Abstract of articles published in "Brain."