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posed under it. The events of 1866 cast his party into the shade for a time, but he gradually resumed, in the enlarged Prussia, his opposition to the measures of military rule and centralization. In 1869 he made a proposition in favor of an international disarmament, which was of course rejected. He was elected a deputy to the Diet of the North-German Confederation, and afterward of the German Empire, but declined both calls on account of his objections to the constitutionality of those political creations. He, however, consented to enter the Reichstag in 1880, as a member from one of the conscriptions of Berlin. He was the author of the expression "Kulturkampf"—battle for culture—in connection with the controversy with the papal power, which was so long a political watchword in Germany. His political work, well performed as it was, was never allowed to interfere with his scientific pursuits, which he regarded as his proper and serious labor, but it often appeared to him, he says, "to be rather a recreation than otherwise." In 1872 he replied with a refusal to an invitation by a German society to withdraw from the French scientific societies of which he was a member, declaring that a rupture of the scientific relations between the two countries would be contrary to the interests of civilization, of science, and of humanity. He was a member of the Sanitary Associations of Berlin during the wars of 1866 and 1870, organized the first Prussian sanitary train, and had a part in the organization of several military and other hospitals. He is the author of new laws in reference to the contagious diseases of animals and to fisheries. Last year he was one of the speakers at a public meeting to do honor to the memory of our murdered President, James A. Garfield.

Professor Virchow's published works are numerous. A large proportion of them consist of special papers on medical subjects, many of which have appeared from time to time in the "Archiv," or are included in the two collections of "Contributions to Scientific Medicine" (1857) and "Treatises connected with State Medicine and Epidemiology" (1879). Important studies of prevalent disorders and epidemics are embodied in his report on the famine in the Spessart (Bavaria), the typhoid fever in Silesia, and leprous affections in Norway, and in his essays on cholera and trichinosis. His "Cellular Pathology," which forms the first volume of his "Lectures on Pathology," in four volumes, has been translated into several languages. "The Pathology of Tumors" (three volumes, 1863−1867) is the most exhaustive and comprehensive work on that subject. Works of a more general character are "Goethe as a Naturalist" (1861), "National Development and the Importance of the Natural Sciences" (1865), "The Education of Women for their Vocation" (1865), "The Problems of the Natural Sciences in the New National Life of Germany" (1871), and "The Liberty of Science in the Modern State" (1877).