Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 22.djvu/262

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each other up. "Last year I observed several times among the Guinea pigs, which were the subjects of my experiments, that those that died were eaten by the survivors. They were not troubled by hunger, for they had all the corn they wanted. Possibly they sought to appease their thirst in the blood of their victims." Büchner, in his psychical lives of beasts, speaks of thievish bees, "which, in order to lessen their labor or dispense with it wholly, made attacks in mass upon provisioned hives, committed violence against the sentinels and the inhabitants, pillaged the hive, and carried away all the store of honey. If this exploit was successful for several times, they, like men, acquired a stronger taste for pillage and violence than for work, and ended by constituting real colonies of brigands." There are isolated individuals which are addicted to theft, and endeavor to slip, without being perceived, into a strange hive; their sly tricks demonstrate that they are forced to concealment, and are conscious that they are transgressors. If they succeed in their attempt, they afterward bring other bees to their hive to tempt them to similar thefts, and thus form a society of thieves. Büchner adds that bees may be artificially made thieves by feeding them a special food consisting of honey mixed with brandy. "Like man, they readily acquire a taste for this beverage, which exercises the same pernicious influence upon them as upon him; they become excited, intoxicated, and cease to work. Do they feel hunger? Then, like man, they fall from one vice into another, and give themselves up unscrupulously to pillage and theft."

2. Acts of Offense committed by Animals under the Influence of the Genetic Instinct.—Such acts may be distinguished between those committed by the male and those committed by the female. The former are more frequent and violent than the latter. Some animals indicate a feeling of decorous modesty, while others are absolutely shameless. Without going into details on this subject, it may be considered sufficient here to remark that most of the sexual offenses which have been defined by the law or put under the ban of human societies may be observed among animals in their intercourse with each other; and instances are on record in ancient and modern history, though rare and not always well authenticated, of attempts by animals against human beings.

3. Acts of Offense committed by Animals under the Influence of Maternal Love.—The exceedingly marked development of this instinct in female animals well justifies the epithet maternal.

Gall has remarked that while the instinct for propagation is extremely ardent among the males of certain species—the cock, the dog, the boar, and the stag, for example—without the animals taking the slightest interest in the young, the instinct for propagation is also generally more active in the male than in the female, and generally, also, the female feels a stronger love for the offspring. Many animals,