erful influence physical organization has upon the character of a people. The permanent prosperity of any community depends far more upon the laws of inheritance than is generally supposed.
Let the most enterprising and promising among the young people emigrate from a place, and it must, in the course of time, have its influence. Whether the vital interests of New England have not suffered in this respect, from so many persons emigrating in the prime of life presents a question worthy of careful consideration.
Interchange of Population.—There is another change going on in these States quite different from the one described. This consists in frequent removals from one State to another.
The census of 1880 shows that Massachusetts had at that time 08,226 residents born in Maine; 54,088 born in New Hampshire; 20,869 in Vermont; 20,514 in Connecticut; and 17,007 in Rhode Island, making 186,764 persons who have removed there from other States. At the same time these five other States had 85,478 persons living in their bounds born in Massachusetts. Deduct these 85,478 from the 186,764, and Massachusetts gains over 100,000, mostly from Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont.
There is very little migration from the other New England States to Connecticut or Rhode Island, and scarcely any from the latter to the former. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, make very nearly equal exchanges, neither gaining nor losing much. These removals from one State to another are prompted from a great variety of interests, personal and local. The States most benefited by them are those employed largely in manufacturing business. These changes are carried on chiefly between villages and cities, and seldom take place in the rural or country districts. It may be said that the foreign element is largely concerned in these removals.
Country Life exchanged for the City.—This change is not governed at all by State lines. It commenced forty or fifty years ago, from country districts to places where trade or business demanded help. The introduction of manufactures and mechanical pursuits of various kinds, as well as the opening of railroads, created a great demand for laborers. By means of those changes and other agencies, trade and commerce became very much enlarged, and furnished employment for increased numbers.
Here and there new centers of business were formed; new villages sprang up, and large towns were converted into cities. In some parts of New England these removals have taken place to such an extent as to change the face of the country and the state of society. It commenced first in the small farming towns, and has prevailed most in places remote from markets and railroad accommodations.
The effect of such removals is especially marked in Massachusetts, as she possesses a larger number of cities, more railroad facilities, and a greater diversity of pursuits. The census shows the following facts: