countries is made, which places the English "navvies," in spite of their shorter hours and higher rate of wages, in a very favorable light. A chapter in regard to the "Influence of American Wages on the English Labor-Market" follows, in which the effect of the large emigration to this country is discussed. This chapter, evidently written before our resumption of specie payments, contains also an opinion in regard to "assisted emigrants," which is interesting as the expression of an English legislator several years prior to the present excitement. Co-operative establishments and boards of arbitration between employers and employed are two other important topics which are treated.
The Religion of Humanity. By William Frey. "Index" Publication-Office, 3 Tremont Place, Boston. Pp. 85. Price, 15 cents.
This little work by an able Russian, who was formerly a professor of mathematics in the East, but has adopted this country for his home, was first contributed in a succession of papers to the pages of "The Index," and, having attracted a good deal of attention, they have been reissued in this separate and more accessible form. Professor Frey takes up the fundamental questions in relation to the nature, basis, applications, and uses of religion, and, while criticising the view adopted by Herbert Spencer upon the subject, is more inclined to accept that of Auguste Comtc. While repelled from Spencer's view, which confines religion to man's mysterious relation to the unknowable Power manifested in the universe, but which is beyond the reach of human intelligence, Professor Frey is attracted to the doctrine of Comte, which makes man, or humanity, the object of religious feeling, veneration, and worship. Being deeply concerned with the interests of humanity, and aspiring after a better state of things than now exists, and recognizing the great power of the religious sentiment, he sees in "The Religion of Humanity" the greatest means of future progress, and the only hope of any substantial improvement in the social condition of mankind. We are not prepared here to consider the grave issues involved in this discussion, but may cordially commend the pamphlet before us as an earnest contribution to the inquiry which, if not conclusive, will be found suggestive, and probably helpful to many who are seeking light upon a much confused and deeply perplexing subject.
The Cause of Variation. By M. M. Curtis. Marshall, Minn.: Published by the author. Pp. 115.
The author's answer to this problem is—labor. He instances the comparative fewness of the larger carnivora, which obtain their food easily, and the large numbers of wolves and other animals, which obtain subsistence only by ceaseless activity, as showing the effect of labor on the development of animals. He maintains, further, that suspension of effort causes proportional loss of consciousness. Intelligent acts are performed without consciousness, hence there is an unconscious intelligence inherent in every structure, giving evidence of form or design; moreover, this intelligence is capable of transmigration. Communities follow the same rule as individuals. "When labor is partially suspended among the individuals in such a community, or, owing to the invention of labor-saving machines and division of labor, becomes more simple, the community begins to manifest the characteristics of decay and dissolution." It would seem to be the author's belief that those who make a failure of this life are, after a term of purgation, to have another try at it, for he ends by saying: "From the fire we came, and to the fire we are going, unless we comply with the conditions of life and consciousness. The answer to the riddle fate would have us read is this: ' Unless ye labor ye shall perish.' If we can not comply with that, we shall probably continue to be warmed over until we can."
Notes on Evolution and Christianity. By J. F. Yorke. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 294. Price, $1.50.
The author puts forth this book as an aid to answering the question, "Is there in the teaching of Christ an originality so wonderful as to be accounted for only by the assumption of a special divine revelation?" The first chapter is devoted to a sketch of some Eastern religions which preceded Christianity. The second is mainly made up of quotations from Christ's teachings,