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Glacial Theories at the American Association.—Topics connected with the glacial theory received much discussion at the Minneapolis meeting of the American Association. In his paper on "The Life History of the Niagara River," Mr. Julius Pohlman held that the falls had no part in excavating the gorge below the whirlpool; but that, Lake Ontario subsiding slowly, no waterfall was formed at its entrance, and the lower part of the gorge was worn out by the river as a rapid in an old shallow valley, till at the whirlpool this path met the ancient river-valley, while it was along that valley only that the falls receded to their present site. In a paper on "Glacial Cañons," W. J. McGee, of Salt Lake City, suggested that the formation of the cañons could be accounted for by presuming that typical water-cut canons were temporarily occupied by glacial ice, which would convert them from a V into a U shape, and that their features do not "necessarily imply extensive glacial excavation, or indicate that glaciers are superlatively energetic engines of erosion." In his paper on the extent, character, and teachings of the ancient glaciation of North America, Professor Newberry maintained that—1. Glaciers covered most of the elevated portions of the mountain-belts in the far West as far south as the thirty-sixth parallel, and in the eastern half of the continent to the fortieth parallel of latitude. 2. The ancient glaciers, which occupied the area above described, were not produced by local causes, but were evidences of a general climatic condition. 3. They could not have been the effect of a warm climate and an abundant precipitation of moisture, but were results of a general depression of temperature. Having stated his objections to the iceberg theory, Professor Newberry added that "the record of the ice period on our continent is far more impressive and extensive than it has been represented. The phenomena were due to an extraneous and