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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

in the days when Liberals were rightly so called, and when the definition was, "one who advocates greater freedom from restraint, especially in political institutions."

Thus, then, is justified the paradox I set out with. As we have seen, Toryism and Liberalism originally emerged, the one from militancy, and the other from industrialism. The one stood for the régime of status, and the other for the régime of contract—the one for that system of compulsory co-operation which accompanies the legal inequality of classes, and the other for that voluntary co-operation which accompanies their legal equality; and beyond all question the early acts of the two parties were respectively for the maintenance of agencies which effect this compulsory co-operation, and for the diminution of them. Manifestly the implication is that, in so far as it has been extending the system of compulsion, what is now called Liberalism is a new form of Toryism.

How truly this is so, we shall see still more clearly on looking at the facts the other side upward, which we will presently do.

 

COLLEGE ATHLETICS.
By EUGENE L. RICHARDS,

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN YALE COLLEGE.

I.—ADVANTAGES.

VERY few persons will dissent from the proposition that students should exercise their bodies. If called upon to state the amount and kind of exercise needed, most people would be at a loss to prescribe these particulars, and would content themselves with the usual generalities about its being essential to health; that it should be so regulated as to be recreative, but not so excessive as to be exhausting. There are numbers of intelligent men who, even assenting to these generalities, never wake to the real truth of them till a violated law of nature inflicts its penalty in their own ill health. However, we must assume that we shall have the assent of sensible people if we start with two principles: first, that young men who study need exercise; and, second, that exercise, to be beneficial, should be regular and systematic. If we can show that college athletics supply this need to quite a large body of students, and supply it regularly and systematically, we may secure a patient consideration of their good effects long enough to add a discussion of their accompanying evils. In this discussion we hope to prove that the evils have been exaggerated; that they are not so great as would be the evils of a college-life without a system of athletics; and, lastly, that such evils as do inhere in the present system are capable of remedy.