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American Association Addresses.—Professor J. W. Langley's vice-presidential address before the Chemical Section of the American Association was on "Chemical Affinity." lie opened his paper with a review of the various theories that had been proposed to account for chemical action from Hippocrates down, and showed how the term "affinity" has disappeared from the chemical literature of the present day. Three methods of studying the force of affinity have been taken up and followed in parallel courses, which may be designated as the thermal, the electrical, and the method of time or speed. It is deduced from thermo-chemical phenomena that the work of chemical combination is largely influenced by the surrounding conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume, and that the force of affinity is dependent on the conditions exterior to the reacting system which limit the possible amount of change. The electrical method has been followed less actively than the thermal one, and has not led to any particularly definite results. Very little work has been done in the method of time or speed of chemical reaction, in which, however. Professor Langley suggests that the future of chemical research may lie. Chemistry is behind physics, in that it is served by only two fundamental conceptions—mass and volume—while physics is underlain by three—space, mass, time. What would physics be without the notation of velocities? such in a measure is chemistry without taking account of dynamics. Whenever we look outside of chemistry, we find that the lines of the great theories along which progress is making are those of dynamic hypotheses. So it is in biology, in geology, and in physiology, where all observations are made in the light of time-indications; and so it must be in chemistry. "The study of the speed of reaction has but just begun. It is a line of work surrounded with unusual difficulties, but it contains a rich store of promise."
In his address before the Geological and Geographical Section on "The Crystalline Rocks of the Northwest," Professor N. II. Winchell presented some considerations in favor of recognizing and adopting in Ameri-