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Mr. Lewes—ranks Lewes higher than Mill as an authority in philosophy! I imagine the raised eyebrows of competent judges.

Here I leave the matter. I have nothing more to say than that if any one has doubts he may easily settle them, irrespective of the explanation I have given above, and irrespective of any authority. He will see that alike by its position as first of the series, and by its title, "First Principles" is shown to contain the cardinal ideas elaborated in the volumes following it. Let him, then, take this volume and take also Miss Martineau's abridged translation of the Positive Philosophy, and compare the two. After an hour's search for points of community he will, I think, feel astonished that any one should have asserted a connection between them.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,
Herbert Spencer,
Athenæum Club, September 13th.


THE term "mud-sill" is supposed to be used contemptuously in the Southern States to designate the lowest rank of the people: those who use nothing and have nothing to use but muscle for their maintenance; men who are uneducated and indifferent to education; men without other aspiration or ambition than that which incites them to appease their hunger and to ward off the blasts of winter. Under every form of government, despotic, monarchal, or republican, such class, more or less depraved, must necessarily exist, and the question in the Southern States is. What shall be the color of the mud-sill? or, if the colors be assorted, white, black, and yellow, shall we have different orders of mud-sills based on colors? The position is open to competition, to all shades of color, to whichever is willing to take it, or most reluctant to strive for anything higher or better.

The Executive war decree of emancipation fell on the South at a time when, owing to the manly front presented by the Confederate forces, it was generally regarded by the Southern people as mere brutum fulmen. Even in cities which had succumbed to Federal arms, and were garrisoned by national troops, the proclamation was regarded by the citizens simply as a threat; these latter looked forward to a rapid advance of the Southern armies, and had no doubt of final victory. Hence they submitted to the increasing rebelliousness of their slaves, just as they submitted to the military requirements of post-officers, provosts, etc.—a mere temporary annoyance, not only soon to be got rid of, but to be heavily atoned for. In the sparsely settled rural regions the news came slowly, and v/as at first, to the ordinary