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character in the so-called moderate drinker, they mutely appeal for aid, and we brutally fine, imprison, and persecute them. These are the spirit and theory which seek support through temperance efforts, through the church, and political parties, to remove an evil of which they have no comprehension. When all this thunder and roar of temperance reformation shall pass away, the still small voice of Science will be heard, and the true condition of the inebriate and the nature of his malady will be recognized.



PROFESSOR EDWARD SINGLETON HOLDEN, the President of the University of California, and Director of the Lick Observatory, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on the 5th of November, 1846. He is a direct descendant of Justinian Holden, who came to this country from Kent, England, in 1636, and settled in Massachusetts on a tract of land which now forms a part of the city of Cambridge, but was then called, I believe, Watertown. Dr. William Holden, grandson of Justinian Holden, and Professor Holden's great-grandfather, afterward moved from Cambridge to Dorchester, Massachusetts, where the family resided till about 1830. The first eight years of Professor Holden's life were spent in St. Louis, but about 1854 he was taken to Cambridge and placed at the private schools taught by Miss Ware and Miss Harris. It was during the six years spent here that he received his first idea of astronomy—from his cousin, Professor George P. Bond, then Director of Harvard College Observatory—and a certain occasion upon which he first saw the bright star α Lyræ through the fifteen-inch telescope made a lasting impression upon his mind.

In 1860 Holden returned to St. Louis and entered the preparatory academy of Washington University, from which, after two years' study, he passed into the Scientific School of the university. The young student soon attracted the attention of Professor Chauvenet, the accomplished mathematician and astronomer, then Chancellor of the University. Professor Chauvenet spent the winter of 1864-'65 in Minnesota for the benefit of his health, and during this time Mr. Holden formed a part of his household, and prosecuted his studies directly under Professor Chauvenet's eye.

In 1866 we find him assisting Dr. Gould in collecting the statistics of the United States volunteer soldiers from the State of Missouri, for the "Investigations in the Military and Anthropological