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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

subject, the philosophical side having, in his opinion, been satisfactorily treated by Matter ("Histoire critique du Gnosticisme," 1827), to whom the reader is referred. The history and origin of the system, its relations with other systems from which it was derived or has borrowed its rituals and its emblems, come under his purview. He begins by reviewing the great religious systems of the East, which were flourishing at the time of the promulgation of Christianity in those regions, with the influence of those systems upon the modes of thought and expression of both the missionaries of the new creed and their exponents. He cites from the words of St. Paul evidence of the previous existence of the germs of Gnosticism in the cities that were the scenes of his most important labors. Proof is brought forward that the seeds of Gnosticism were originally of Indian growth and were carried westward by the movement of Buddhism, which was planted in the dominions of the Seleucidæ and the Ptolemies "at least as early as the times of the generation following the establishment of those dynasties." Next, are considered the contributions of Egypt, which are discriminated from the real Gnostic productions, and have their distinctive characters pointed out; Mithraicism, with explanations of its alliance with Occidental Christianity; the religion of Serapis, the last of the heathen forms to fall before the power of Christianity; "Abraxas, Abraxaster, and Abraxoid gems," and their meaning; the relations of astrology, the Templars, the Rosicrucians, and the Freemasons; with observations about the origin of Mason's marks, and talismans, and amulets, which are related by their nature to this religion; "for Gnostic symbols and Gnostic formulas gave their virtue to many of the class, being borrowed directly from the Gnosis or from the older creeds out of which the latter was constructed. Their employment, and the notions generating them, have been here described, showing the derivation of many of the mediæval examples from the Gnostic class; and by following out the same principle, it has been attempted to find a key to their cabalistic legends which may fit them better than any hitherto offered by their interpreters." The illustrations are drawn entirely from engraved stones, for the Gnostic societies erected no monuments to attract public attention. They include various types of the god Abraxas, Cnuphic and Scrapie emblems, Egyptian types, Mithraic subjects, talismans, Hindoo symbols, and Mason's marks. The book promises to be of great value to the student, but can hardly be comprehended without some previous knowledge of the subject.

Elementary Psychology and Education. By Joseph Baldwin, of Texas. International Education Series. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 287. Price, $1.50

This work is intended expressly for elementary classes. The author says: "Our literature is rich in psychologies adapted to colleges and senior classes in our normal schools, but is destitute of a text-book suitable for our high schools and for the lower classes in our normal schools. The want of such a text-book is widely felt. The author has given the best years of his life to the effort to prepare such a text-book and thus meet the want. Each lesson here submitted has been given scores of times to large classes with highly satisfactory results. Short sentences in plain Anglo-Saxon is the rule. Object-lessons, bold type, outlines, study-hints, examples to work out, original analysis, original definitions, original applications, and helpful illustrations, are called into constant requisition."

The plan of the work is to deal in Introductory Lessons with Attention, Instinct, and Sensation; in Part II with the Perceptive Powers; in Part III with the Representative Powers; in Part IV with the Thought Powers; in Part V with the Feelings; and in Part VI with the Will Powers. Diagrams for the purposes of illustration are abundant. Topical analyses are made at the close of each chapter, together with Suggestive Study-Hints, The typography of the book is excellent,

Boston School-Kitchen Text-Book. By Mrs. D. A. Lincoln. Boston: Roberta Brothers. Pp. 27 + 237. Price, $1.

The purpose of this manual is a very important one, for it aims to supply what many young women undertake the management of a home without—namely, a knowl-