of the framework, such as sitting height, length of arms and feet, and the breadths, which are determined by the bones as a basis of measurement. Of eighteen bony measurements, twelve give no greater difference than a single millimetre, or one hundredth of one per cent between the two. Of eleven of the soft or muscular measures, including the variable and developmental parts of the body, the range of difference is from five to forty-seven millimetres, or 3·3 per cent differences between the two. And of the tests of strength and capacity we find an average of 7·2 per cent in favor of the athletic man.
"Or we may group the items as in the graphic form. Here we find the increase in favor of the athletic student in weight is 6·92 per cent; in lengths, 0·14 per cent; in breadths, 1·42 per cent; in girths, 2·56 per cent; and in tests, 10·24 per cent.
"The grain of truth derived from these pages seems to be that athletism does not seem to depend so much on physical gifts„ accidents, or circumstances, as in the energy of will which is put into the muscles. The long arm and leg and the big muscle do not insure the feat, but the skill in using them. It is the intelligent training, and not the big measures, which determine the standards of excellence in our athletic feats and sports.
"President Garfield said: 'There is no way in which you can get so much out of a man as by training; not in pieces, but the whole of him; and the trained men, other things being equal, are to be the masters of the world.'"
At no college in the land is more careful attention given to physical development by means of gymnastic exercises than at Amherst. If, therefore, Dr. Sargent's statements were true with respect to partial development by athletics, the fact ought to show in these averages, and specially against the athletic student. The contrary fact appears.
Notice Dr, Hitchcock's conclusion, that "athletism does not seem to depend so much on physical gifts, accidents, or circumstances, as in the energy of will which is put into the muscles. . . . It is the intelligent training, and not the big measures, which determine the standard of excellence in our athletic feats and sports." This willpower, guided by intelligence, makes not only successful athletes, but successful men. The training which young men receive in their sports possesses its highest value by virtue of the fact that it brings forth some of the best powers of mind and character, not because it develops mere bone and muscle.
Whether averages conceal or prove facts depends upon the interpretation of them. Dr. Sargent's charts would be more valuable to the public if he would give his data. The figures, by means of which the measurements of the "typical or normal standard" are derived, furnish the key to the chart. No man can test himself by the standard till he knows the standard measurements. The charts may be