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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 32.djvu/808

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

a little carbonate of soda; if this candy is poured into trays without working, it forms a fine, plain taffy. Nearly all cough-candies are made of boiled brown sugar, flavored or medicated with anise, camphor, cayenne pepper, and peppermint, in varying proportions. The medicated lozenges, known under the name of troches, pastilles, and pulmonic wafers, contain substances possessing demulcent, sedative, tonic, and often slightly astringent properties. Most bronchial troches are composed of extract of liquorice, sugar, gum arable, powdered cubebs, and extract of conium.

The delicious cream bonbons, of which the most popular variety is the chocolate cream, form a group by themselves. The materials used are the best loaf or crushed sugar, water, with a little acetic acid or cream of tartar, the whole boiled to the thread degree. The creaming of the mixture, so that it melts in the mouth, is produced by rubbing it back and forth on the marble slab or against the sides of the kettle with a wooden spatula or spoon. Sugar in this state is fondant by confectioners. Owing to the peculiar granular texture of the creamed sugar, it can not be cast in ordinary molds without breaking; hence the use of finely-powdered starch for molds. Plaster models of the shape desired are fastened at regular distances from each other on a flat slab, and when pressed into a tray of the starch-flour produce cavities into which the creamed sugar is then run. The starch easily separates from the bonbons when they are cool, just as the earth mold falls away from the finished iron casting. The candies are also generally shaken in a sieve to remove the starch-particles that may still adhere. If it is wished to crystallize them, they are submerged for ten or twelve hours in properly boiled sugar, with a small portion of alcohol added; when removed they will be covered with sparkling crystals. The chocolate on the outside of chocolate creams is applied by simply rolling the cream-balls in thick fluid chocolate. The chocolate is prepared by grinding it on a hot plate or bed, the heat of which melts the oil in the substance and keeps it in a fluid condition.

Children are often mystified by brandy and wine gum-drops and other liqueur drops. The mystery is easily penetrated. The boiled sugar is simply mixed with the brandy or flavored water, and the whole poured into starch molds. As the sirup cools on the top and the sides, the sugar crystallizes around the liquor, leaving it safely prisoned within. So, in the case of pure gum-drops not containing liquor, the evaporation of water from the surface of the gum arable forms a hard crust, which prevents the further evaporation of the interior liquid, for a long time at least. The delicate little aromatic disks known as white lozenges are also made of gum arable, which is mixed with dry, powdery icing-sugar, the mass then flavored, rolled flat with a wooden roller, and cut into shape with a tin cutter. In this case the sugar is not even heated or mixed with water at all. Sugar--