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LITERARY NOTICES.

may be employed for certain cases in education. Finally, the accomplishing of criminal acts upon or by means of a hypnotized person, and the obtaining of true or false testimony by means of hypnotism, constitute a branch of the subject which society may soon have to take serious account of. Although dealing with phenomena that border on the marvelous, this book is not at all sensational, and the reader may rest assured that it will give him a sound scientific view of the interesting field which it covers.

An Inquiry into Socialism. By Thomas Kirkup. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 188. Price, $1.50.

An intelligent exposition of the principles and aims of socialism from one of its supporters is certainly welcome at the present time, when public attention is directed so universally toward important socialistic movements. This volume presents the author's views as to the evils of the existing industrial system, his interpretation of the essential ideas of socialism, and a review of the prospects of the latter. It is a very readable work, is well written, and gives in small compass a great deal of useful information and valuable discussion upon all the topics above mentioned. It is of similar character to Professor Graham's "Social Problems," though going beyond the latter in its belief in the efficacy of socialism as a system to remedy the ills afflicting society.

We think the account of the evils of the present industrial system is the best part of the book. We are quite unable to agree with the author in his evidently sincere conviction that socialism will furnish any permanent remedy for those ills, and do not think he demonstrates how it can. This, however, is a matter of difference in fundamental principles. But the main criticism we pass upon the work before us is that it stretches the term socialism so far as to embrace almost everything that makes for the improvement of human life and conditions. Socialism is justice, altruism, practical Christianity, progress, social evolution; and these in turn are socialism. We are unable to allow the propriety of thus connecting the latter term with all these beneficent things. As most people suppose, socialism is in principle the accomplishment by state action of co-operative production and the equalization of distribution, using the state for positive amelioration, instead of confining its offices to guaranteeing liberty and security. We should not let our enthusiasm for any ism run away with our powers of observation; and certainly these, if properly exercised, would show us that it is highly premature at any rate to cover by the common designations socialism and socialistic all the ideals of a better social order, and all the most promising methods for attaining it. But this is really what the author seems to do; he makes a cult, and worships blindly an idealized deity, without taking sufficient pains to find out the real character of his idol.

The Ventilation and Warming of School Buildings. By Gilbert B. Morrison. "International Education Series," Vol. IV. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 173. Price, 75 cents.

The author of this treatise presents both the theoretical and the practical sides of his subject, and the principles which he sets forth are applicable to all other buildings as well as to school-houses. He describes first the necessity for ventilation, and the methods of detecting impurities in air, and then discusses various modes of natural and artificial ventilation. His chapter on ventilation by windows will prove useful in many cases where no better means for the purpose exist. Another chapter gives careful estimates of the cost of ventilating. The subject of warming is treated in a similar manner, and the final chapter of the volume is devoted to the ideal plan for warming and ventilating combined, which has grown out of the author's study of these allied subjects. An appendix contains various thermal formulas and notes in regard to certain mechanical ventilating appliances. The volume is illustrated.

The Annual Report of the Chief Signal-Officer for 1886. Washington: War Department. Pp. 500.

This volume contains the usual statistics in regard to military signaling and the Government Weather Bureau. The proportion of weather indications verified during the year was 78ยท48 per cent.