Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 33.djvu/771

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MAN IN RELATION TO THE LOWER ANIMALS.

degraded into simple accumulations of reproductive cells—reproductive organs—on the bodies of the hydroids.

No group of animals presents a more complete record of the process of evolution of species than the hydro-medusæ, and the comparative study of the different species gives, with a wealth of detail which is entirely beyond the scope of a short article, all the steps in the progress of modification. The minute gradations are so numerous that a long training is required to grasp them all without confusion, and to read the history which they exhibit, but those which I have selected are sufficient to illustrate the manner in which the larval life has gradually grown into prominence, and has become evolved and specialized, while the adult life has dropped more and more into the background, and has finally disappeared completely.

MAN IN RELATION TO THE LOWER ANIMALS.
By Prof. EDWIN EMERSON.

ON the published bills and circulars of the "Fidelity Trust Company," of Philadelphia, is a representation of a strong-box guarded by a watchful dog. The faithful protection of the dog is a striking emblem of the mission of the Fidelity Trust Company. Fidelity to a trust is certainly a moral quality of a high order. This is such a well-known characteristic of the family of dogs as to have become proverbial. It is a matter of common observation that members of the better class of dogs, such as Newfoundlands and Saint-Bernards, show also other moral qualities: they have a high sense of honor, can not be bribed, will not steal, etc., and are true to the death as to matters committed to their trust. To deny to such animals the possession of moral qualities seems to be absurd. But moral qualities and reasoning faculties are not confined, in the animal world, to dogs alone; far from it. Many tribes of animals have the habit, when necessity seems to require, of posting sentinels to guard from surprise. This practice is in use by the chamois, the deer, the wolf, the goat, the wild horse, the elephant, the beaver, the monkey; the raven, the crow, and many other birds. To consider in advance as to the necessity of placing sentinels, and then to resort to that form of strategic device, is a decided proof of the possession of no small perceptive and reasoning power; and the fact that the sentinels faithfully fulfill the onerous duties of their trust is a striking proof of advanced moral qualities.

Any theory in regard to man's place in nature which denies some degree of reason and moral perception to the lower animals