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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 34.djvu/324

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

the compass; the other portion of the deflection being due to the hard iron (that is, the semicircular deviation), a number of steel bar-magnets, M, are placed in a disk, which is turned to the requisite angle and then raised or lowered, until the needle returns to the magnetic meridian N S. The magnet H, to nullify the heeling deviation, is placed at a predetermined distance vertically below the compass-pivot.

In considerable changes of magnetic latitude the magnets have to be slightly moved to counterbalance the altered condition of the deviations, and sometimes, also, to correspond to a partial loss of power in the magnets themselves.

 

HOUSE-DRAINAGE FROM VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW.
By JOHN S. BILLINGS, M. D.,

SURGEON, UNITED STATES ARMY,

IN the year 1596 there was published in London a pamphlet entitled "A new discourse of a stale subject; called the Metamorphosis of Ajax. Written by Misacmos," which was followed in the same year by a second pamphlet entitled "An Anatomy of the Metamorpho-sed Ajax, wherein, by a tripartite method, is plainly, openly and demonstratively declared, explained and eliquidated by Pen, Plot, and Precept, how unsavory places may be made sweet, noisome places made wholesome, filthy places made cleanly. Published for the common benefit of builders, housekeepers, and house owners, by T. C, traveller, apprentise in poetry, practiser in music," etc.

The titles of these little books were in the style of the age in which they appeared; but the contents were something new, for they contain the first description and illustrations of a water-closet which had appeared since the days of old Rome. They contain a good deal more, it is true; for the author. Sir John Harrington, made them the medium of a Rabelaisian satire upon things in general, and his own times in particular, which was of such a character that license to print was refused, and Queen Elizabeth, who was not prudish, forbade the author from appearing at court. His reasons for his device are interesting: "For when I have found, not only in mine own poor confused cottage, but even in the goodliest and stateliest palaces of this realm, notwithstanding all our provisions of vaults, of sluices, of grates, of pains of poor folks in sweeping and scouring, yet still this same whoreson saucy stink, though he were commanded on pain of death not to come within the gates yet would prease to the chambers; I began to conceive such a malice against all the race of