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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 34.djvu/874

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explored the whole length of the river. As determined by the author, "Glazier Lake" is in about latitude 47°; is 1,585 feet above the level of the sea, and is 3,184 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The river reaches its highest northing at Lake Bemidji, in the neighborhood of latitude 47° 30'. Captain Glazier's claims to be the discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi have been disputed by some persons, who have affirmed that the lake which has been named after him was not unknown to Schoolcraft, and that it has been visited by hunters. The author replies to these objectors by affirming that, no matter how many persons may have known of the existence of that body of water, he was the first to explore it, to gauge its dimensions, and to determine that it is the ultimate source of the Mississippi; and he cites a large number of declarations of geographers and of men versed in the history, geography, and traditions of Minnesota which support his claims in this shape. He represents "Glazier Lake," though its superficial area is less, as being deeper and containing more water than Itasca Lake. The story of the explorer's journey is very pleasantly narrated, with descriptions of the notable points along the river and the more striking scenes, and is embodied in a neat volume which is adorned with appropriate illustrations.

Lectures on Pedagogy: Theoretical and Practical. By Gabriel Compayré. Translated, with an Introduction, Notes, and an Appendix, by W. H. Payne, A. M. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 491.

Although deeming that the best system of teaching "which we make for ourselves through study, experience, and personal reflection," M. Compayré says also that "in order to aid the reflection and guide the experience of each novice in instruction, the book is very far from being useless though it do nothing more than stimulate personal reflection. It is just in this spirit, less for imposing doctrines than for suggesting reflections, that this modest volume has been written." He divides the treatise into two distinct parts, theoretical pedagogy and practical pedagogy. In the first part, after a general consideration of the function and limits of education, the author states the general principles of both physical education and intellectual education, and then takes up the special culture of the various faculties, beginning with the education of the senses. Besides treating of the essential faculties which are constantly being employed in mental operations, he makes a plea for the culture of the imagination, justifying this tribute to its importance by a quotation from Mr. Blackie, who says: "It is the enemy of science only when it acts without reason—that is, arbitrarily and whimsically; with reason it is often the best and the most indispensable of allies." The education of the feelings is also urged in a chapter which leads up to the subject of moral education. Æsthetic and religious training are likewise included in the scope of education. Under practical pedagogy, methods of teaching and rules of school management are treated. In regard to the importance of method he says: "There is nothing to be expected from a discipline which is hesitating and groping; from instruction which remains incoherent and disorderly, which fluctuates at the mercy of circumstances and occasions, and which, being wholly unpremeditated, allows itself to be taken at unawares." The principal methods of teaching to read are first described, some advice on the teaching of writing is given, and the simultaneous teaching of reading and writing is touched upon. The author has a chapter on object-lessons, pointing out their true character, and telling how they have been distorted by some teachers. In dealing with the study of the mother tongue he points out some general principles, and tells the special use of grammar, dictation exercises, analysis, composition, elocution, and literary exercises in teaching knowledge of language. The teaching of history and of geography are treated in like manner. His chapter on the sciences is devoted mainly to arithmetic and geometry, while the physical and natural sciences are disposed of in three pages. He seems inclined to rate the acquirement of facts as a more important purpose of science-teaching than the formation of the habit of observation; therein, as in what few other suggestions he gives on this subject, following the French official programme of instruction. Methods of moral and civic instruction, and the teaching of drawing and music, are treated in some detail. Manual labor for