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LITERARY NOTICES.

and then passes to an estimate of the strength and weakness of democratic government as it exists in the United States, and a comparison of the facts with European speculation about democracy in general. Part VI is of a somewhat different character from the preceding portions of the work, dealing with the social institutions of the United States, but these, as the author says, "count for so much in the total life of the country, in the total impression which it makes and the hopes for the future which it raises, that they can not be left unnoticed." In footnotes and appendixes to both volumes much matter illustrative of the text is supplied. Among these materials are an account of "the lobby," and a newspaper description of a scene in a presidential nominating convention. Mr. Bryce is not inclined to credit so much influence to democracy in making America what it is as preceding writers have done, or as Americans are fond of doing. "A close analysis of social and political phenomena," he says, "often shows us that causes are more complex than had at first appeared." He finds many things to condemn in our political system, as any honest critic must, but he is not pessimistic in regard to our future. He is convinced of "the existence in the American people of a reserve of force and patriotism more than sufficient to sweep away all the evils which are now tolerated, and to make the politics of the country worthy of its material grandeur and of the private virtues of its inhabitants. America excites an admiration which must be felt upon the spot to be understood. The hopefulness of her people communicates itself to one who moves among them, and makes him perceive that the graver faults of politics may be far less dangerous there than they would be in Europe. A hundred times in writing this book have I been disheartened by the facts I was stating; a hundred times has the recollection of the abounding strength and vitality of the nation chased away these tremors." If there is not much in these volumes that the well-informed American is not aware of, there is a great deal in them that Americans do not sufficiently think of, while to the English reader it furnishes a broad, truthful, appreciative view of the great republic of the New World.

The History of Ancient Civilization. Edited by Rev. J. Verschoyle. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 295. Price, $1.75.

This hand-book is intended to give a comprehensive view of ancient civilization in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other quarters of "the East," as well as in Greece and Rome, in order to bring them out in their relations with one another and show the chain of dependence, without an understanding of which their succession and development can not be adequately comprehended. The civilization of Rome, "which was the outcome of corporate action," was most largely influenced by that of Greece, which was "the outcome of individual thought," and this runs back into the various civilizations of the East. The precise nature and extent of the influence of these civilizations upon Grecian development have not been defined, but are at this moment more than ever before the subject of active study. The author does not attempt to measure them, but gives comprehensive though succinct descriptions of the civilizations so far as they have been made out, beginning with "the beginnings of civilization," and bringing under review in succession, "The Monuments and Art of Egypt," "The Babylonians and Assyrians," "The Religion and Social State of the Jews," "Phœnician Commerce," and "The Civilization of the Aryans, Hindoos, and Persians." Greek civilization is treated under the heads of "Religion," "Politics," "Literature and Art," and "The Diffusion of Greek Genius"; "The Roman World" under those of "The Republic," "The Conquests of Rome—Transformation of the Republic," "Roman Society under the Empire," and "Latin Literature and Art." The work is based on M. Ducoudray's "Histoire sommaire de la Civilisation"; but, while a translation was made by an experienced hand, it can not, in its present form, be called a translation, for a large part of it has been rewritten.

How to study Geography. By Francis W. Parker. International Education Series, Vol. X. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 400. Price, $1 50.

The equipment of the teacher must include both an understanding of educational theory and an acquaintance with educational practice. The present volume, as indicated by its title, is designed to contribute to the