works is indispensable, not only for scholarship's sake but also to secure a proper mental equilibrium in forming a theory of knowledge, on the part of those especially who have been educated to rely on a posteriori methods. For the reason just given the scientific student can least of all afford to neglect Kant, and if he has a contempt for this philosopher he may be assured that there is still opportunity for creditable achievement in the way of refuting the author of the "Kritik" on many important points still left for the ambitious controversialist.
The two works above mentioned are excellent, each in its own way, for the purpose of making the student acquainted with Kantian philosophy. Prof. Watson's idea is to present to a class of more advanced students a series of carefully selected extracts from the chief treatises of Kant, "The Critique of Pure Reason," "The Metaphysic of Morality," "The Critique of Practical Reason," and "The Critique of Judgment"; then to aid these students by the discussions of the class-room, using the extracts as a text-book. It must be borne in mind that, except possibly where a student is devoting himself exclusively to philosophy, never could he hope to go over the whole of the four works just named under the teacher's class instruction. The advantage, then, of a work like Prof. Watson's is very apparent, if the selections have been so judiciously made as to present connectedly the most important parts of the treatises. In accomplishing this the editor has been very successful. He has made good his claim that the volume "contains all the main ideas of Kant in their systematic connection," and he has produced a very useful book for those who have not the time to devote to Kant's works in full, and also an excellent preparatory course for those who intend to go further in studying that philosopher.
Prof. Mahaffy's book is a good one for the student to read in connection with a text-book like Prof. Watson's. It is expository and critical; we regret to say it is also polemical, the latter quality constituting its chief weakness. In a somewhat extravagant preface Prof. Mahaffy expresses his conviction that Kant is "certainly the greatest" of all metaphysicians, "and perhaps the most imperfectly understood." We do not think the writers of this volume have added anything to Kant's greatness, whatever it may be, but we do consider that they have contributed something to a better understanding of him. For the most part they have correctly apprehended their master's meaning, and have clearly interpreted him in a style of diction which is very agreeable and well calculated to hold the student's attention. This volume is to be followed by a second, containing the "Prolegomena" of Kant.
State of New York. Twenty-second Annual Report of the State Board of Charities, 1888. Charles S. Hoyt, Secretary. Pp. 608.
The visitorial powers of this board extend to all charitable, correctional, and eleemosynary institutions, excepting State prisons, supported wholly or in part by the State, or by cities, counties, incorporated benevolent associations, or otherwise. Its executive duties are the supervision of the support, care, and removal of State paupers; the examination and removal of alien paupers to their homes in different countries of Europe; watch of the care of the insane; the approval and certification of incorporations for the custody and care of dependent children; and the oversight and control of insane Indians on the several reservations of the State. It has also authority to require reports from the various institutions subject to its visitation. The institutions included within this jurisdiction have in all $54,310,658 of property; return as the year's receipts, $14,591,817, and $13,315,698 expended; and care for 64,322 persons. The report gives a picture of their general condition and operations.
"War with Crime," Being a Selection of Reprinted Papers on Crime, Reformatories, etc. By the late T. Barwick LI. Barker, Esq. Edited by Herbert Philips and Edmund Verney. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 299. Price, 84.
Mr. Barker, who died in December, 1886, is described as having been a man of diligent thought, who sought out the principles that underlie the practical side of every question. "A country squire of moderate wealth, he studied the duties incumbent on him in that