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The American Forestry Association.—The American Forestry Congress at its eighth annual meeting, held in Philadelphia in October, changed its name to Association. The meeting was opened with an address by the Hon. Carl Schurz, in which he narrated the difficulties he encountered from the opposition of Congressmen when, as Secretary of the Interior, he endeavored to protect the forests on the public lands against timber thieves. Mr. B. E. Fernow spoke on "Methods of Forestry Reform," and particularly of what lay within the competency of the Government. Resolutions offered by Mr. Fernow, recommending the withdrawal of all public forest-lands from sale till a permanent system of national forest management can be applied, called out debate. Mr. L. Thompson, a lumberman, argued that it would be contrary to our national usage and the spirit of our institutions to extend the sphere of Government control over interests that have been hitherto successfully managed by private enterprise; that the forests would be better protected by selling the land to citizens than by putting them under the management of office-seekers and politicians. Colonel Edgar T. Ensign held that where large water-sheds are involved, and the streams are to be used for irrigation, only national control can be made efficient and adequate; that it is not enough even to leave the matter to individual States. Mr. Richard J. Bin ton pointed out the impossibility of adequate supervision by owners or individual States of rivers like those that have their sources in our Western mountain forests. Mr. Fernow's resolutions were adopted. A resolution in favor of removing the duty on lumber wa8 not entertained, for fear of drawing the Association into political controversies.
Lake Ridges of Ohio.—In the American Association paper of the Rev. G. Frederick Wright on "The Relation of Lake Ridges in New York, Ohio, and Ontario," the ridges in Ohio were described as being four in t number, and standing at elevations above the sea of 775, 720, G90, and 650 feet. They consist of sand and gravel piled up to the height of from five to twenty-five feet, and approximately parallel with Lakes Erie and Ontario, and are evidently old shore lines of the lakes. The problem of how the water could have been kept up to these several levels seems to have been solved with considerable probability by recent glacial investigations. Attention was called to the fact that the irregularities of the southern boundary of the glacial region are such that if the retreat of the ice front was with equal rapidity all along its course it would have wholly withdrawn from Lake Erie and western Lake Ontario some time before the ice-dams across the Mohawk and the St. Lawrence had been melted away. An inspection of the map shows that two of the most important of these outlets would be, (1) that through Seneca Lake into the Chemung River in New York, and so into the Susquehanna, and (2) that through the Wabash at Fort Wayne, Ind. The heights correspond pretty well with that of the up-