uses, ptomaïnes, comparison of thermometers, weights and measures, mineral springs of the United States, and vital statistics. The article on mineral springs is by Judson Daland, M. D., and forms an appendix of thirty-two pages. At first sight the volume does not make a favorable impression, for its exterior is severely plain, and it appears to be printed from too small type; but very little examination is needed to show that the publishers' claims as to good paper, clear print, and binding so that the book will lie open at any page, are well founded.
Handbook of Geology, for the Use of Canadian Students. By Sir J. William Dawson, C. M. G., LL. D., F. R. S., Principal of McGill University. Montreal: Dawson Brothers. 1889. Pp. 250.
This is a practical treatise on geology, well fitted to the needs of those for whom it was written, more than half the volume being devoted to a review of the topography and geology of Canadian territory. It includes the results of the later geological surveys, the observations of Dr. G. M. Dawson in Manitoba and British Columbia in 1886-'87, and also the discoveries in paleontology which have changed the chronology of the Blattidæ and other species.
The work is divided into three parts. The first division treats of the constitution of rocks, their classification, the fossils found in them, and their arrangement. In classifying rocks, the distinction made between their origin, chemical nature, and texture is helpful. The second part relates to chronology. The nomenclature adopted by the International Congress is given, and the equivalent terms in use by geologists. The illustrations of the various eras, their fossil plants and animals, are well chosen and complete. The third and longest section is descriptive of the physical and geological features of the country. This is divided into six regions, and examination is made of each. The author does not give much space to the discussion of subjective theories, such as the origin of the metamorphism of rocks, the plasticity of the earth, and other mooted points; but refers to authors who have treated these subjects at length. Even in regard to the deposit of drift upon the plains by icebergs, he points out "difficulties in the way of the theory of glaciation caused by the absence of marine mollusca and other forms of marine life." As the area considered exceeds that of the United States, and representatives of nearly every period from Eozoic to modern times are found within its limits, it is evident that the student who becomes familiar with this rock-structure and history goes forth well equipped as a geologist. Directions are given for slicing rocks and fossils for the microscope, and a description of the tools necessary for the field geologist, with suggestions as to the best manner in which he may pursue his work.
A History of Modern Europe. By C. A. Fyffe, M. A. Vol. III, from 1848 to 1878. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 572. Price, $2.50.
It is an important period which is covered by Mr. Fyffe's third volume, for during these thirty years many events took place whose influence in European history will be great and lasting. Among these are the creation of the Italian kingdom, the winning of the leading position among the German states by Prussia, and the war between France and Germany in 1870-'71. This period covers the greater part of Bismarck's active career, and includes the years in which Cavour and Disraeli made their fame. Soon after it began, occurred the Crimean War; the dismemberment of Poland was among its events, and it closes with the war between Russia and Turkey. The work is a record of wars and state-craft, and does not attempt to chronicle the progress of social, commercial, and industrial affairs. The book has large, clear print, topics are indicated by marginal titles, and there is a copious index.
The Way out of Agnosticism. By Francis E. Abbot, Ph. D. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. Pp. 75. Price, $1.
This little book is no more than a compact introduction to a treatise on scientific religion which Dr. Abbot is preparing. Agnosticism, he says, declares that the scientific method applies only to phenomena, to the appearances or shows of things, and has no possible application to noumena, or things as they really exist in their internal relations and constitutions. A scientific theology, Dr. Abbot maintains, will show that