Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 37.djvu/538

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A long controversy follows this paper on "alimentiveness," the gustatory center, in the Phrenological Journal, and much ridicule was thrown at the originators for localizing a center for hunger and thirst, those affections being thought due to the stomach alone. Even to-day scientific men say phrenology is exploded, because certain thicknesses in the skull and the various muscles make it impossible to distinguish the corresponding portions of brain; yet it is remarkable that the organ which has been ridiculed most, and which was the most difficult to observe, is to-day found correct.

If there were but two organs correctly localized by Gall, it would justify a reconsideration of his work; but there seems to be a number of faculties, the localization of which has been confirmed by modern experiments. Unfortunately, the later phrenologists have spoiled many of Gall's original observations. I will just give a few more examples, in order that my paper may receive sufficient consideration, and may effect a change in your views with regard to the old phrenology.

Prof. Ferrier's experiments on "the lower extremity of the ascending parietal convolution" in monkeys, marked 11 (Fig. 1), resulted in "retraction of the angle of the mouth. The action is that of the platysma myoides."

Darwin (Expression of Emotions, page 298) says with regard to the physical expression of "fear," and the platysma myoides muscle:

"Sir Charles Bell (Anatomy of Expression, page 168) and others have stated that this muscle is strongly contracted under the influence of fear; and Duchenne insists so strongly on its importance in the expression of this emotion that he calls it the muscle of fright."

This may perhaps suffice to show that the platysma myoides muscle is called into action in the expression of fear.

Now let me draw your attention again to the old phrenology. Gall located so-called "cautiousness" in an area which covers not only Ferrier's center 11, but also the angular gyrus (d, Fig. 2). He found an enormous development of this region in persons known for their timidity, persons known to take alarm easily, and who could be easily terrified.

As to the function of the angular gyrus, physiologists are not agreed. Ferrier includes the gyrus in his center of sight. Munk calls it "Seelenblindheit"—a strange name with a still stranger meaning.

I will quote some passages which seem to indicate that the effects produced by lesion of this region have some connection with the function attributed to it by phrenologists.

Ferrier, Philosophical Transactions, 1875, Part II, pages 445-451,