element of that faculty is I can not tell, but in its actions it is concerned with the emotion of fear.
Prof. Ferrier found, when experimenting on dogs and other animals on a portion of brain marked 5 (Fig. 1), which corresponds to "the ascending frontal convolution at the base of the superior frontal" in the human brain, elevation of shoulder and extension forward of the opposite fore-limb, or flexion of the forearm and paw.
Now, according to Darwin, raising of the shoulders—sometimes accompanied by extension of the arms—is a sign of non-resistance. He inquires, page 271:
"Why men in all parts of the world when they feel—whether or not they wish to show this feeling—that they can not or will not do something, or will not resist something if done by another, shrug their shoulders, at the same time often bending in their elbows, showing the palms of their hands with extended fingers, often throwing their heads a little on one side, raising their eyebrows, and opening their mouths."
On page 270 he says: "Shrugging the shoulders likewise expresses patience or the absence of any intention to resist. Hence the muscles which raise the shoulders are sometimes called, as I have been informed by an artist, the patience muscles."
Mantegazza (La Physionomie et les Sentiments, page 113, etc.) dwells on the importance of the movements of the arm in the act of submission, devotion, and veneration. Darwin doubted whether the kneeling posture, with the hands upturned and palms joined, is an innate expression of devotion, but rather thought this posture a sign of submission. Mantegazza differs from Darwin; he holds that it is from the habit we have from our childhood to join our hands for prayer, that we employ the gesture when appealing to human beings, who can do us either much good or great harm. He thinks this gesture is innate and not acquired. He questioned many artists, and gives as the result distinct rules, showing the importance which the position of hand and arm play in the expression of veneration and devotion.
We know, then, that the raising of the shoulders, together with the bending of the arms and hands, are concerned in the physical expression of submission or non-resistance.
The old phrenologists located in this region their organ of "veneration"(e, Fig. 2) which is to give an impulse to devotion and worship. Combe (System of Phrenology, page 212) says: "Children who are prone to rebellion, regardless of authority, and little attentive to command, will generally be found to have this organ deficient. Veneration leads to deference for superiors in rank as well as in years, and prompts to the reverence of authority."