have not varied much for several decades. According to the census of 1880, the total number of all who were occupied for gain was 17,400,000 out of 50,000,000. (I will omit fractions in dealing with these figures.) A little over twenty-three per cent, numbering about 4,000,000, were occupied in professional and personal service. There can, of course, be no direct foreign competition with this class through the import of products. Ten and four tenths per cent, numbering a little over 1,800,000, were occupied in trade and transportation; there can be no import of foreign products to compete with this class; it matters not to them what they move or what they may deal in. Forty-four per cent, numbering a little over 7,600,000, were occupied in agriculture as farmers and farm laborers, fruit cultivators, shepherds, and the like; and, lastly, twenty-two per cent, numbering a little over 3,800,000, were occupied in the manufacturing and mechanic arts and in mining. All who could or can be subjected to any change in the direction of their industry by alterations in the tariff policy of this country are substantially included in the two latter classes—i. e., in agriculture and manufactures.
According to the valuation of the products of agriculture, which was carefully revised by the Department of Agriculture after the census had been taken, the total value of the product of this great body of farmers and farm laborers, numbering 7,000,000, was a little under $4,000,000,000; that part of the product which consisted of sugar, tobacco, hemp, flax, wool, fruits, and the like, or of any other articles which could be in any part imported from abroad, came to less than $200,000,000—or less than five per cent of the total. It follows that not exceeding 350,000 to 400,000 of all who were occupied in agriculture could be subjected to any adverse influence by changes in the tariff, even if a larger proportion of these necessary articles were imported free of duty than had been imported while subject to duty; this estimate by persons being made in ratio to the relative value of different products.
In this consideration we of course leave out the Dominion of Canada. Owing to the difference in climate and to our advantage of position, there is a considerable exchange of products of agriculture between us and our neighbors in Canada; the amounts about balance. On the whole, we supply Canada with a rather larger part of the products of agriculture than they can supply to us. But the total traffic is relatively a very small part of our commerce, and may be wholly set aside, especially since the advocates both of protection and of freer trade are coming together in sustaining reciprocity among the nations on the American continents, especially with Canada.
On the other hand, in 1880, seventeen per cent of the value of