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The Water-Supply of Memphis.—The city of Memphis, Term., now possesses a complete supply of pure water, which forces itself through artesian wells from a depth of about four hundred feet below the surface. The artesian source was discovered in 1887 by Mr. R. C. Graves, of the Ice Company, who, seeking water suitable for the manufacture of ice, made borings to the depth of three hundred and fifty-four feet. There he struck water, which at once rose to the surface and spouted up in a gushing fountain. This source has since been utilized in numerous private wells of hotels and manufacturing establishments and in the public supply of the city. It lies in a stratum of "water-bearing sand," nearly eight hundred feet thick, which is reached after boring through the one hundred and forty-five feet of hard, impervious clay that forms the "bed-rock" of the region, and furnishes a permanent bottom to the Mississippi River. Above this is a stratum of gravel twenty feet thick, topped by the bluff formation of loess that constitutes the surface of the region and gives character to it. These formations extend a considerable distance to the eastward, and there outcrop one after the other—the water-bearing sand, which is sandwiched between the clay already mentioned and another clay below it, being represented by a tract twenty miles across and of indefinite length, which may be seen in Fayette and other counties along its line down into Mississippi. This region, on which is gathered the water that percolates to the wells of Memphis, is, in its general surface, about three hundred feet above high water of the Mississippi. In May, 1889, there were fifty-seven bored wells in Memphis, five of which only reached the water-bearing sand, while the others went down to depths of from three hundred and fifty to four hundred feet and more. They are included within an area three miles long and one mile wide. The average depth of the thirty-two wells through which the water-supply is