feel almost assured that they have descended from the same parent form, and are therefore closely related."
The history of Art, especially as shown by Architecture, in the noblest monuments of the most enlightened nations of antiquity, also gives abundant proofs of this same upward tendency from the rudest and simplest beginnings. Many columns of early Egyptian temples or tombs are but bundles of Nile reeds slightly conventionalized in stone: the temples of Greece, including not only the earliest forms, but the Parthenon itself, while in parts showing an evolution out of Egyptian architecture, exhibit frequent reminiscences and even imitations of earlier constructions in wood: the mediæval cathedrals, while evolved out of Roman and Byzantine structures, constantly show unmistakable survivals of prehistoric construction.
So, too, History has come in, illustrating the unknown from
- For the stone forms given to early bronze axes, etc., see Nilsson, Primitive Inhabitants of Scandinavia, London, 1868, Lubbock's Introduction, p. xxxi; and for Plates, see Lubbock's Prehistoric Man, chapter ii; also Cartailhac, Les Âges Préhistoriques de l'Espagne et du Portugal, p. 227; also Keller, Lake Dwellings; also Troyen, Habitations Lacustres; also Boyd Dawkins, Early Man in Great Britain, p. 292; also Lubbock, p. 6; also Lyell, Antiquity of Man, chap. ii. For the cranogs, etc., in the north of Europe, see Munro, Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings, Edinburgh, 1882. For mounds and greater stone constructions in the extreme south of Europe, see Cartailhac's work on Spain and Portugal above cited, Part III., chap. iii. For the source of Mr. Southall's contention, see Brugsch, Egypt of the Pharaohs. For the two sides of the question whether in the lowest grades of savagery there is really any recognition of a superior power, or anything which can be called, in any accepted sense, religion, compare Quatrefages with Lubbock, in works already cited. For a striking but rather ad captandum effort to show that there is a moral and religious sense in the very lowest Australian tribes, see one of the discourses of Archbishop Vaughan on Science and Religion. For one out of multitudes of striking and instructive resemblances in ancient stone implements and those now in use among sundry savage tribes, see comparison between old Scandinavian arrow-heads and those recently brought from Tierra del Fuego, in Nilsson as above, especially in Plate V. For a brief and admirable statement of the arguments on both sides, see Sir J. Lubbock's Dundee paper, given in the appendix to the American edition of his Origin of Civilization, etc. For the general argument referred to between Whately and the Duke of Argyll on one side and Lubbock on the other, see Lubbock's Dundee paper as above cited; Tylor, Early History of Mankind, especially p. 193; and the Duke of Argyll, Primeval Man, Part IV. For difficulties of savages in Arithmetic, see Lubbock, Origin of Civilization, New York, 1889, pp. 459 et seg. For a very temperate and judicial view of the whole question, see Tylor, Early History of Mankind, chap, vii., especially pp. 188–191, also chap. xiii. For a brief summary of the scientific position regarding the stagnation and deterioration of races, resulting in the statement that such deterioration "in no way contradicts the theory that civilization itself is developed from low to high stages," see Tylor, Anthropology, chap. i.
- For striking examples of the testimony of language to upward progress, see Tylor, chap, xii; as to evolution in Architecture, and especially of Greek forms and ornaments out of Egyptian and Assyrian, with survivals in stone architecture of forms obtained in Egypt when reeds were used, and in Greece when wood construction prevailed, see Fergusson's Hand-Book of Architecture, vol. i, pp. 100, 228, 233, and elsewhere; also Ottfried Müller, Ancient Art and its Remains, English tranlation, London, 1852, pp. 21 9, passim.