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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 38.djvu/171

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159
AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS.

sand; e e are molds being dried. At the left is seen a small portable furnace on wheels, to which blast is supplied by the bellows h, of a forge. When this is used as a forge, the bellows h are rearranged so as to blow through an opening at the top. In the figure, 2 is a workman filling a mold with fluid metal which has been melted in the furnace. At m are seen the screw-clamps that confine the three molds n. Near the middle of the picture are two parts of a mold separated; at the right, in the foreground, is a pile of charcoal, and at q is a furnace (similar to a baker's oven) for drying the cores for the molds."

PSM V38 D171 Melting iron for casting in small furnaces.jpg
Fig. 8.—Melting Iron for Casting in Small Furnaces.

In Fig. 8 (also taken from Reaumur's treatise) "is shown two common furnaces in which the iron to be melted is thrown among the charcoal without being placed by itself in a crucible; one of these furnaces is represented as erected, and actually melting the iron; while the other is dismounted, and the melted iron is being poured into molds. "The workmen (1 and 2) operate the bellows; a b is the upper part of the furnace, whose base is buried in charcoal dust; b is the opening into which is thrown the charcoal and pieces of iron; c c, the powdered charcoal which surrounds the base of the furnace; d is the tuyère which receives the noses of the bellows; e is a heap of charcoal; e 2 is a pile of fragments of cast iron; f is a post which supports the lever g, by means of which the ladle which forms the bottom of the furnace is easily raised." The workmen (3 and 4) are occupied in pouring into molds the iron which has been melted in the sec-