Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 38.djvu/544

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9. Natural History. 10. Physics and Chemistry.

Having taken this examination, and studied two semesters, the student is admitted to the so-called natural science examination, covering physics, chemistry, botany, and zoölogy, with comparative anatomy. At the end of five semesters comes the examination in anatomy and physiology, partly written, partly oral. In this the student must explain some anatomical preparation placed before him, answering questions on anatomy; and must make and explain some histological preparation. He must also prepare a written thesis, within closed doors, upon some physiological subject. The proper oral examination covers anatomy, histology, embryology, and physiology.

Lastly comes the real doctor's examination, which is practical (including written) and oral. The practical embraces—

1. Pathological Anatomy. 2. Pathology and Therapeutics. 3. Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. 4. Obstetrics. 5. Ophthalmology. 6. Medicine and Hygiene.

After all this comes the formal oral examination, covering—

1. General pathology and pathological anatomy. 2. Special pathology and therapeutics, including children's diseases. 3. Surgery. 4. Obstetrics, including women's diseases. 5. Hygiene. 6. Medical jurisprudence. 7. Psychiatry. 8. Theory of medicine.

Such are the examinations required by the Swiss Government of all who practice medicine within its borders; and no thought is given by its universities as to whether the applicant for permission to practice is a man or a woman. The person must only be ready on application, and numbers of girls have justified this confidence. Students of all lands may take the doctor's degree from any department by passing successfully a final examination prepared by the university faculty. All, on the other hand, may be admitted to these other state examinations; and ambitious ones are sometimes found, even among girls, who accept the opportunity.

Up to 1883 the whole number of students who had matriculated in the University of Zurich was about 6,700, of whom 284 were women. One hundred and ninety-one of these women were students of medicine, 91 of philosophy, and two of jurisprudence According to nationality, they may be classified as follows:

Russia. Germany. Austria. United
Medicine 119 12 7 28 10 15
Philosophy 49 13 7 5 11 6
Jurisprudence 1 . . . . 1 . . . .

Thirty took the doctor's degree—23 in medicine, 3 in pure philosophy, 4 in science, or philosophy of the second class, as it is called.