Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 38.djvu/823

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

place in a year. The old Missourian settlers are slow to sell or change, but equally slow to improve. New England settlers never sell, but extend their acres if a chance offers. The Western "hustlers," and men from the cities, are the ones that lay out new towns and colonies where immigrants can buy ten or twenty acre tracts. Instead of California being a land of rapid changes in land-ownership, it is, on the whole, very conservative in this respect. The large ranches are for sale, but the homesteads are not.

The middle classes of California will always draw their living from the soil. Mining and lumbering require more capital, and manufacturing will not develop to any great extent for many years to come. The products of which the State appears to have a natural monopoly promise to support a dense population, spread over the country in colonies, on small farms, and in loosely built towns. No other part of the United States is developing under similar conditions, and hence the economic history of California has the importance of a new experiment. Wages still high, a generous scale of living, few manufactures, industries largely horticultural, tendencies which rapidly change the better classes of workmen into small land-owners such are the conditions. What sort of a community will the California of the twentieth century be?


DR. HEINRICH T. SCHLIEMANN, the enthusiastic excavator of the most ancient Grecian cities, died in Naples, Italy, December 26, 1890. He was born January 6, 1822, at Neu Buckow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where his father was a Protestant clergyman, poor, but interested in ancient history, and particularly in the excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii, which were then fresh. Acquiring some taste in these matters and a little knowledge of Latin from his father, young Schliemann's interest in Troy was aroused when he was seven years old by the sight of a sensational picture, in Dr. Georg Ludwig Jerrer's Universal History, of the burning of that city. The book, according to Dr. Irving J. Manatt, in the Independent, is still treasured in Schliemann's library at Athens, and in it, the writer adds, "he has pointed out to me the rude picture of Troy in flames, the sight of which first lodged the seed-thought in his soul." He decided at once that the foundations of such a city must still exist, "covered up by the dust of ages," and determined to make their discovery the purpose of his life. To this determination he adhered through all the vicissitudes of a precarious career. After some four years at the Gymnasium and the Realschule, he was apprenticed in 1836