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heat; 3. That he is entitled to the sole credit of the experimental discovery of the true nature of heat. Benjamin Thompson, of Concord, New Hampshire, commonly known as Count Rumford, should be accorded a nobler position and a higher distinction than he has yet been given by writers on thermodynamics."


Antiquity of Man..—R. H. Tiddeman publishes in Nature an interesting paper on the "Relation of Man to the Ice-sheet in the North of England," in which he describes, with some detail, the fossils found in Victoria Cave, in Yorkshire, now being explored by a committee, aided by the British Association. In this cave discoveries of a most interesting character have been made. In a bone-bed, beneath other deposits, were found bones, teeth, and other remains of extinct species of animals. Prof. Burke identified remains of the Elephas primigenius, rhinoceros, cave-bear, hyena, bison, and others, and among these remains was a human bone, a somewhat clumsy fibula (small bone of the leg). Of this Mr. Busk says: "The relic is human; there is no room for the slightest doubt on the subject." And this opinion is fully confirmed by Prof. James Flower, of the College of Surgeons.

The position of the locality in which this bone was found makes its discovery of great importance. It seems to carry back the period when man existed to glacial if not to preglacial times.


Trout from an Artesian Well.—In the Journal of Science and Art we find a note from Mr. A. W. Chase, giving the following curious information, which the author received from Mr. Bard, agent of the California Petroleum Company at San Buenaventura: Mr. Bard, wanting water to supply a newly-constructed wharf at Point Hueneme, southeast of San Buenaventura, commenced sinking an artesian well on the sea-beach, not five feet from high-water mark. At the depth of 143 feet a strong flow of water was obtained, which spouted forth to a height of 30 feet. It was controlled with a "gooseneck," and utilized. One day while the agent was absent, the men around the well noticed fish in the waste water. On his return, they called his attention to the fact, and, on examination, the well was found to be filled with young trout, thousands of them being thrown out at every jet. These trout were all of the same size (about two inches long), and perfectly developed. The first examination was made to see whether they had eyes. These were found perfect. Now, there is no stream nearer than the Santa Clara River, several miles distant. Could these fish, then, have come from its head-waters by some subterranean outlet? There are no trout in the lower portions of the stream. The temperature of the water is the same as that of the wells all around, viz., 64° Fahr., too warm, of course, for trout to live in it long.


Atkins Charcoal Filters.—The Atkins system of filtering water is spoken of in terms of high commendation in Iron, from which journal we take the following description of the system: The best and purest animal charcoal is ground and pulverized until it is brought into the finest possible state of comminution, and, thus prepared, it is mixed up with a definite proportion of Norway tar, and a compound of other combustible ingredients. The combined materials are then thoroughly amalgamated with liquid pitch, and the whole kneaded up into a homogeneous plastic mass, which admits of being moulded into slabs or blocks of any required dimensions and shape. These blocks having been allowed to dry and harden, are subsequently carbonized by being subjected to a process of incineration by heat; and, in this manner, all the combustible ingredients are burnt out of the block, leaving nothing behind but the animal charcoal in the form of a block of charcoal, permeated throughout by innumerable pores, admirably adapted for the mechanical infiltration of fluids, while subjecting them, in a minutely subdivided state, to the chemical absorptive and purifying action of the carbon itself.

These carbon-blocks are chiefly cast in cylindrical forms, so arranged that the percolation is from the external periphery inward, and the centre of the block is hollow, forming a tube whence the filtered water flows. In this way the bulk of the impurities is deposited on the outside of the block, whence it may be removed by washing with